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Migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south, undertaken by many species of birds.  Migration is marked by its annual seasonality.[14] Non-migratory birds are said to be resident or sedentary. Approximately 1,800 of the world's 10,000 bird species are long-distance migrants.[15][16]


Many bird populations migrate long distances along a flyway. The most common pattern involves flying north in the spring to breed in the temperate or Arctic summer and returning in the autumn to wintering grounds in warmer regions to the south. Of course, in the southern hemisphere, the directions are reversed, but there is less land area in the far south to support long-distance migration.[17]

 Eleonora's falcon Falco eleonorae, which breeds on Mediterranean islands, has a very late breeding season, coordinated with the autumn passage of southbound passerine migrants, which it feeds to its young. A similar strategy is adopted by the greater noctule bat, which preys on nocturnal passerine migrants.[20][21][22]  Partial migration is very common in the southern continents; in Australia, 44% of non-passerine birds and 32% of passerine species are partially migratory.[23] In some species, the population at higher latitudes tends to be migratory and will often winter at lower latitude.   Female chaffinches Fringilla coelebs in Eastern Fennoscandia migrate earlier in the autumn than males do[26] and the European tits of genera Parus and Cyanistes only migrate their first year.[27] A common pattern in North America is clockwise migration, where birds flying North tend to be further West, and flying South tend to shift Eastwards. Many, if not most, birds migrate in flocks. For larger birds, flying in flocks reduces the energy cost. Geese in a V-formation may conserve 12–20% of the energy they would need to fly alone.[28][29] Red knots Calidris canutus and dunlins Calidris alpina were found in radar studies to fly 5 km/h (2.5 kn) faster in flocks than when they were flying alone.[17]

East Asia Flyway

Arctic through Asia Coast to Antarctica - Short Tailed Shearwater, American Golden Plover,

Arctic through Indonesia to Australia -  Spine Tailed Swift, Japanese Snipe, Eastern Curlew

Arctic through Borneo to Australia - Eastern Curlew

Key Spots 

 Raj Ampak / Waiego in Sept - kingfishers, kookaburros, esp. eagles 

Singapore in October, kingfishers, hawks 

Borneo, mostly summer residents - wide variety esp. eagles. 


Arctic through Nova Scotia to Argentina  - American Golden Plover

Arctic through NY to N. Brazil - Blackpool warbler, warblers galore

Arctic through Caribbean to Argentina - Bobolink

Canada through Corpus to Belize - Ruby throated hummingbird

Dakotas through Corpus/AZ to Amazon - Swainsons Hawk.

Arctic through Colorado, Central America to Brazil - Tennessee Warbler

Arctic to California - Snow Goose

Arctic  through CA and Central America  to Brazil - Cliff Swallow

Arctic along CA coast to Antarctica - Arctic Tern 

Key spots

New York in Mid May  - Warblers galore

Brownsville TX Late May  - Warblers, Tanagers, Orioles

Corpus TX Late Sept - Hawk watch 

SF Headland CA Late Sept - Hawks

San Diego CA Mid May and Sept - assorted warblers, flycatcher, orioles



Arctic through Spain to Okavambo - White Stork, Northern Wheatear, 

Arctic through Italy to Okavambo - Willow Warbler, 

Europe through Middle East to East Africa- Red Backed Shrike, Northern Wheatear, White Stork 

Key spots 

Malaga SW Spain in April - eagles, warblers.

Ethiopia  in Feb - large range 

Aqaba, in April - warblers, wheatears, eagles

Crocodile island Luxor i n late March to early April - warblers pipits, eagles. 

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