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9600 BC       Gobekle Tepe henges

3600 BC-500 AD Troy

800 BC         Kaymakli Underground city - south of Goreme

500 BC         Cappadocia founded, Goreme cliff city

110 BC         Ephesus Library of Celsus - like Petra





324 AD               New Rome   capital of  Roman Empire

330-1204 AD      Constantinople - Hagia Sophia - Byzantine Christian (Greece +Turkey)

1204-1261 AD    Latin Empire - Hagia Sophia is catholic

1261-1453 AD     Byzantine  (eastern Rome) 

1453-1922 AD    Ottoman Empire, Hagia Sophia is mosque



6000 BC Saqquara  starts, and is used until 300BC.

3500 BC First hieroglyphic texts - linked or independent of Mesopotamia. 

2670 BC Step Pyramid in Saqquara  built by  Imhotep - a commoner, first medical science.

2560 BC Great Pyramid of Giza & Sphinx built by Khufu 

1500-1069 BC Valley of Kings burials

1334 BC Tutankamun !!

1264 BC Abu Simbel, Luxor,  built by Ramases II as well as numerous invasions to expand empire. 

1069 BC end of New Kingdom - start of decline - sacking of the tombs in Valley of the Kings by the priests of Amun - change of god!  

550 AD  Persians take over and get assimilated into culture.

331 BC Alexander the Great invades

323 BC Great Library of Alexandria, most of  Karnak,  Edfu, Philae built by the Ptolomy's - Greeks who invaded and were then assimilated by the culture.

196 BC Rosetta Stone written - found in Memphis Egypt , The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic and Demotic scripts respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient Greek.

30 BC Death of Cleopatra, Rome takes over.

27 AD Roman emperors take over. 


2200 BC   Minoan civilaization thrives in Crete, Akrotri, Knossos

1900 -1100 BC   Myceanaem in Greece.  Mycenae, Pylos, and Argos. Linear A&B samples

1650 BC   Eruption of Thira destruction of Akrotiri

900 Bc      Sparta formed

800-400 BC  Olympics 

659 BC      First large statues

550 BC     Ephesus, Turkey peaks. 

550 BC     Pythagoras, 

598 BC     Democracy in Greece

497 Bc       Alexander 1 

490 BC      Defeat Persians in Marathon

480 -323 BC   "Classical period" 

480-479 BC    Xerxes from Persia tries to invade - battles at Thermopylae, Salamis and finally looses at Plataea

460-320 BC Full democratic instiutions in Athens introduced by Pericles

447 BC      Parthenon built

431-404 BC  Pelloponesian war with Sparta

420 BC     Atomic theory by Democritos

399 BC    Trial and death of Socrates

336 -323 BC   Alexander the  Great tutored by Aristiotle - -takes over Egypt.

287 BC     Archimedes

270 BC     Heliocentric world by Aristarchus

200 BC    Rome expands with battles with Carthage

146 BC    Rome takes over Egypt and is assimilated into culture. 

110 BC    Ephesus Library of Celsus - like Petra

50 AD      Christianity takes over 

267 AD    Goths take over


1770 – c. 1670 BC, Babylon max

612 – c. 320 BC.      Babylon max


Built 1000BC abandoned 400AD, by Nabateans -  Arabian nomads around since 4000 BC  with obvious Roman influence.

A caravan trade route center down the Jordan valley to Aqaba.  Does appear in Bible. "The Nabataean origin of the Arabic script is now almost universally accepted"



Roman amphitheater plus harbor 


CORDOBA   814-950AD most of Spain to Pakistan  is Islam starting in 632 AD. Mohammed born 570AD. Mohammed succession, now Shia more extreme in Mesopotamia region, Sunni everywhere else. 

Great Mosque of Cordoba  - from across river, hall of pillars inside (try side track, labyrinth or fly through), at night.  

GRANADA 1275-1482AD

Alhambra - view on hill mountains behind, reflecting pools, at night 


Capiliera village nestled in hills.


59 BC     Florence established by Julius Ceasar

79 AD    Pompeii 

250 AD  Roman Empire maximum.

697-1797 AD   Republic of Venice

1204 AD           Venice captures Constantinople

1300's AD         Venice most powerful 

1450-1527 AD  Florence is center of Renniesance

1500's                Florence home of the Medici

1797 AD            Napoleon conquers

Cycles of domination 

Egypt    - Hyroglyphs

Greece  - Linear A&B

Rise of Persia 550BC-637AD

Nabateans  - Arabic 

Rome  - Christianity  - 

Rise of Islam. - 800 AD mid Spain to Pakistan.

Cycles of Culture 

12000 BC Fertile crescent organized agriculture

3000-300 BC- Pharos's  great natural wealth and cultural cohesion, veneration of after life. 

1000-30 BC  Greek - democracy, analytical thought, libraries.  The closest thing to The Greek Goddess of Science is The Muse of Astronomy, Urania. India - 1000 BC astronomy.   China  100BC-900AD 4 great inventions; gunpowder, compass, printing, papermaking. 

100-300 AD  Rome - Christianity, 

600- 800 AD Byzantium - Islam. 

1400-1500 AD Renaissance - focus on reality, analytical and freedom of thought returns. 

1500-1600 AD World wide European empires emerge.

1700's Democratic revolution.

1800's Industrial revolution. 


500 BC  


323 BC  

circa. 200 BC   Karnak, Petra, Olympia, Ephesus, Goreme


250 AD  

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550 AD 

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500 BC -500 AD  Nacza lines 

300 BC- 1521AD Inca Empire Peru to N Chile 

1190 - 1300 AD Anasazi Cliff dwellings in US

1450 AD Maccu Pichu - Incas in Peru

1438-1472 AD Aztec in Guatemala

1500 AD Mayan Ruins in Belize

Europe & Middle East


2000's BC  Stonehenge 

2500 BC Great Pyramids

1263 BC Abu Symbel & Luxor

576 BC Pynx was the site of Greek democracy. 

447 BC Partheonon

200 BC   Petra, Olympia & Ephysus

200 BC-100 AD Dead sea scrolls.

0 AD     Hadrians Wall 

27 AD Roman emperors take over

126 AD Pantheon in Rome

500 AD Basilica San Vitale - Byzantine

796 AD Aachen Cathederal based on Basilica.

1066 AD Tower of London Starts

1079-1532 AD Winchester Cathederal

1095 -1291 AD Crusades

1200 AD Sainte Chappelle in Paris - Gothic Style based on Aachen.




1100's AD  Khajuralo Temples 

1200's AD Jaiselmer Fort 

1400's AD  Kumbhalgargh Fort 

Far East


6000's BC  Great Wall starts  

210 BC  Terracotta Army

100 BC  Compass and Paper invented

711 AD Nara Japan

1100's AD  Ankor Wat

1368-1644 AD Best sections of Wall

1397 AD Golden Temple in Kyoto

1406-1420 AD Forbidden City



Once food productivity exceeded the needs of the individual farmer, the god-ruling class in Egypt had money and manpower to  build up their image.  They justified their positions as "gods who rule", and built progressively more elaborate tributes to themselves in the after life and the gods, with temples and tombs. Many structures featured alignment with sun and mood cycles based on detailed astronomic observations similar to other agrarian societies at Ankor Wat, Chaco Canyon, Mayans, Stonehenge. The civilization of ancient Egypt was indebted to the Nile River and its dependable seasonal flooding. The river's predictability and fertile soil allowed the Egyptians to build an empire on the basis of great agricultural wealth. Egyptians are credited as being one of the first groups of people to practice agriculture on a large scale. This was possible because of the ingenuity of the Egyptians as they developed basin irrigation.[1] Their farming practices allowed them to grow staple food crops, especially grains such as wheat and barley, and industrial crops, such as flax and papyrus.[2]

UNSPECIFIED - CIRCA 1990: Assyrian civilization, 7th century b.C. Scene of agricultural work and swimmers in a river. Relief from Royal Palaces of Nineveh, circa 645 b.C. 

The Ionian Enligtenment

The Greek (Anatolean coast in todays Turkey) city of Miletus was the birthplace of Greek philosophy and Western scientific thought. Their approach refused to allow any supernatural actions to govern natural processes. This rejection of the supernatural did not make the philosophers atheists, rather it made them subordinate divine action to natural law which was known as Physis.

The Greeks had gods, not god-rulers, so were less authoritarian and the people had the freedom to have at least some say through democracy, and allowed the  freedom to analyze the world. Archimedes, Galen, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Euclid, Democritos,  Hippocrates and Aristarcus, established technologies such as water pumps, medicine, natural philosophy,  geometry, atomic structure of matter, heliocentric astronomy, etc. Technology also flourished in China with 4 great inventions; gunpowder, compass, printing, papermaking. 

Greek Democracy 

In the late 6th century B.C., the Greek city-state of Athens began to lay the foundations for a new kind of political system. This demokratia, as it became known, was a direct democracy that gave political power to free male Athenian citizens rather than a ruling aristocratic class or dictator, which had largely been the norm in Athens for several hundred years before. Athens’ demokratia, which lasted until 322 B.C., is one of the earliest known examples of democracy; and although recent scholarship has complicated the Eurocentric view that it was the first democracy, this ancient political system was extremely influential in the Mediterranean region.  By far the most significant and well-understood example is Athenian democracy in Athens. However, at least fifty-two classical Greek city-states[1] including CorinthMegara, and Syracuse also had democratic regimes during part of their history.


      200AD                                                           500AD                                                       750AD                                                       1200AD

The Romans took over Greece and Egypt initially as a Republic. After 27AD, the Roman Empire was run by emperors with Greek and Roman mythology,  and  controlled Europe and Middle East. In 200 AD, the Huns started the collapse in Germany, By 500 AD, the Eastern Roman empire is Christian. By 750 AD  Spain and the Middle East is Islamic, and the Franks are Catholic under Charlemagne. By 1200 AD, Britain and most of Europe  is now Catholic, and the crusades have started to try and push back Islam. 

Middle Ages

Medieval religion developed as a hybrid of pagan beliefs and practices and Catholicism, eventually dominating the everyday lives of peasants.

The religion of the Middle Ages, as characterized by historian Peter Brown, was about “the joining of Heaven and Earth.” As Christianity spread throughout Europe in the Early Middle Ages, the Latin Catholic Church dominated official and proscribed religious beliefs, in some cases driving pagan practices underground while in other cases incorporating pagan rites and rituals into the emerging tapestry of medieval religious structures. All life was dominated by some aspect of the Catholic Church, from life to death and throughout the calendar year, identified by hundreds of feast days.

In a society where most people – as many as 98%, were illiterate serfs and peasants, the only avenue of escape rested not on earth, but in the afterlife. Although the rigidity and unending routine of society in the Middle Ages was mitigated by festivals usually tied to important feast days of the Church, such as the carnivalesque periods before Lent or Christmas – a subject explored by historians like Z. Natalie Davis, the over-riding factor of daily life was found in conformity to Church control of everyday life.

Religion in the Middle Ages served several purposes. Catholicism represented a unifying factor as well as a controlling mechanism to define human existence within a paradigm of cosmic order brilliantly stratified and explained by the poet Dante. Detractors and dissidents were heretics, threats to the conformity of religion which formed the most important aspect of social and cultural identity.

Christianity did not immediately win the hearts and minds of the people of Europe. The process of Christianization was a slow one and, even toward the end of the Middle Ages, many people still practiced 'folk magic' and held to the beliefs of their ancestors even while observing Christian rites and rituals. The pre-Christian people – now commonly referenced as 'pagans' – had no such label for themselves. The word 'pagan' is a Christian designation from the French meaning a 'rustic,' one who came from the rural countryside, where the old beliefs and practices held tightly long after urban centers had more or less adopted orthodox Christian belief.

Through the Middle Ages the religions founded around an monotheist god, as expressed in the the dead sea scrolls (Christianity, Judaeism, Islam), are dominant under  the European monarch and emperors.  The architecture of places of worship became the way to express fealty, and became more and more elaborate as in the Gothic Cathedrals. Religious orthodoxy ruled. 

Magna Carta 1254 AD started the devolution of power in the UK. The 1300's saw the plague decimating the population by 30%, erosion of the control of monarchs as in Magna Carta, and 100 years war between France and England over religion. In response, the late middle ages  saw the rise of the Renaissance, a movement that sprang from the ashes of a crisis-ridden 14th century helped by the printing press (1440 AD) democratizing information.  The Renaissance began in Italy among intellectuals of the urbanized North who instead of giving way to pessimism in the wake of the death and socio-economic upheaval around them chose to create a new society through a search for renewal or rebirth. 

Republic of Florence

The republic was ruled by a council, known as the signoria. The signoria was chosen by the gonfaloniere (titular ruler of the city), who was elected every two months by Florentine guild members.

The son of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, Cosimo de' Medici succeeded his father as the head of the Medici Bank. He played a prominent role in the government of Florence until his exile in 1433, after a disastrous war with Tuscany's neighbour, the Republic of Lucca. Cosimo's exile in Venice lasted for less than a year, when the people of Florence overturned Cosimo's exile in a democratic vote. Cosimo returned to the acclaim of his people and the banishment of the Albizzi family, who had exiled him. The Renaissance began during Cosimo's de facto rule of Florence, the seeds of which had arguably been laid before the Black Death tore through Europe. Niccolò Niccoli was the leading Florence humanist scholar of the time. He appointed the first Professor of Greek, Manuel Chrysoloras (the founder of Hellenic studies in Italy), at the University of Florence in 1397. Niccoli was a keen collector of ancient manuscripts, which he bequeathed to Cosimo upon his death in 1437. Poggio Bracciolini succeeded Niccoli as the principal humanist of Florence. Bracciolini was born Arezzo in 1380. He toured Europe, searching for more ancient Greco-Roman manuscripts for Niccoli. Unlike his employer, Bracciolini also authored his own works. He was made the Chancellor of Florence shortly before his death, by Cosimo, who was his best friend.

Cosimo's fervent patronage transformed Florence into the epitome of a Renaissance city. He employed Donatello, Brunelleschi, and Michelozzo. All these artistic commissions cost Cosimo over 600,000 florins.

Foreign relations, both as a backdrop to Cosimo's rise to power and during first twenty years of his rule, were dominated by the Wars in Lombardy. This series of conflicts between the Republic of Venice and the Duchy of Milan for hegemony in Northern Italy lasted from 1423 to 1454 and involved a number of Italian states, that occasionally switched sides according to their changing interests. Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan invaded Florence twice in the 1430s, and again in 1440, but his army was finally defeated in the battle of Anghiari. The Milanese invasions were largely instigated by the exiled Albizzi family. Death of Filippo Maria in 1447 led to a major change in the alliances. In 1450 Cosimo's current ally Francesco Sforza established himself as the Duke of Milan. Florentine trade interests made her support Sforza's Milan in the war against Venice, while the fall of Constantinople in 1453 dealt a blow to Venetian finances. Eventually, the Peace of Lodi recognized Venetian and Florentine territorial gains and the legitimacy of the Sforza rule in Milan. The Milan-Florence alliance played a major role in stabilizing the peninsula for the next 40 years.

The political crisis of 1458 was the first serious challenge to the Medici rule. The cost of wars had been borne by the great families of Florence, and disproportionately so by Medici's opponents. A number of them (Serragli, Baroncelli, Mancini, Vespucci, Gianni) were practically ruined and had to sell their properties, and those were acquired by Medici's partisans at bargain prices. The opposition used partial relaxation of Medici control of the republic institutions to demand political reforms, freedom of speech in the councils and a greater share in the decision-making. Medici's party response was to use threats of force from private armies and Milanese troops and arranging a popular assembly dominated by Cosimo's supporters. It exiled the opponents of the regime and introduced the open vote in councils, ``in order to unmask the anti-Medician rebels".

From 1458 Cosimo withdrew from any official public role, but his control of Florence was greater than ever. In the spring of 1459 he entertained the new pope Pius II, who stopped in Florence on his way to the Council of Mantua to declare a crusade against the Ottomans, and Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Francesco's son, who was to escort the pope from Florence to Mantua. In his memoirs, Pius said that Cosimo “was considered the arbiter of war and peace, the regulator of law; less a citizen than master of his city. Political councils were held in his home; the magistrates he chose were elected; he was king in all but name and legal status. . . . Some asserted that his tyranny was intolerable."

The Renaissance flourished in the Republic of Florence a community run by a series of oligarch families elected by a small group of power brokers. The Medichi's supported a new breed of open thinkers, such as Leonardo Da Vinchi, Michaelangelo, etc.  Leonardo Da Vinchi (1452-1549 AD) predates Columbus, Magellan's voyage, Elizabeth 1, Copernicus heliocentric theory, Dutch Masters. Galileo (1564-1642 AD) still fell foul of the Catholic Church dogma for championing Copernicus's ideas, and in 1859 Darwin imposed a self imposed delay in Origin of Species possibly due to religious pressure with debate continued  through  the Scopes monkey trial in 1925, until today. 


1520 AD Luther excommunicated started the Reformation. 

​The Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment, or simply the Enlightenment, was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated Europe in the 16-1700's with global influences and effects. The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on the value of human happiness, the pursuit of knowledge obtained by means of reason and the evidence of the senses, and ideals such as liberty, progress

In 1749, the French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc proposed that age of the earth was much longer than the bible suggested. By the early 1800's the deposition of strata was accepted, and that fossils could be used to identify layers. Even though the first dinosaur bone was found in 1674, it was  only identified as an extinct giant lizard in 1824. 

USA established their democratic revolution in 1777 AD, the French in 1799 AD.  It was not until 1802 that a general election process was established in the UK is response to the revolutions in the US and France. The great democratic powers then proceeded to dominate the  Industrial Revolution and the post World War 2 technology revolution. At the same time societies controlled by religious orthodoxy or monarchies, such as Tsarist Russia, Afghanistan etc seem unable to progress.   

In the end, religion just provides an unchanging, fact-free, construction whereas understanding reality is the only way to make progress, democracy is a critical freedom that allows freedom of thought. 

See also 

  • Draper, John William. (1875). History of the Conflict between Religion and Science. Henry S. King & Co (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009; ISBN 978-1-108-00069-7)

  • Henry E. Sigerist 1938. Science and democracy.  "it cannot be mere coincidence that science actually has flourished during democratic periods"


Monarchy - Sacred kingship or theocratic kingship, religious and political concept by which a ruler is seen as an incarnation, manifestation, mediator, or agent of the sacred or holy (the transcendent or supernatural realm). 

Democracy - Republic - a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch.

Conflicts in the 1990's

1905 started with a revolution in Russia to make the Tsars a constitutional monarchy. In 1914, the assassination of the Austro-Hungarian heir by a Serb,  triggered a cascade of allies to join WW1 with Germany, Austro-Hungary, Italy and the Ottomans against France, England, Russia, China and eventually USA - the autocrats against the democracies.  By 1918, a second  revolution resulted in a Russian communist autocracy. 

The poverty in post WW1 Germany eventually led to the democratic election of Hitler who made himself dictator, and who's expansionist aims precipitated WW2 between the autocracies of  Germany, Italy and Japan against everyone else. Post war Europe was divided by the "Iron curtain" forming a communist "sphere of influence". This time, stability in democratic Europe was maintained by financial support and continued passive military presence. Civil war in China led to a communist take over in 1949.

Post WW2, the remining world empires gave up direct rule, the power conflict became US led democracy vs. USSR  led communism using proxy countries forming "spheres of influence".  Communist expansion stalled after conflict in Korea and Vietnam. In 1976, Mao Tse Tung died and China moved to economic liberalization. Eventually communism in USSR collapsed with the fall of the Wall in 1989. 

As communism declined, Islamic purists reemerged resisting external  influences which resulted the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979,  the rejection of USSR by Afghanistan in 1989,  the attack on the Twin Powers in 2000, and subsequent entanglement in Afghanistan, and Iran. 

All religions 

Since the earliest humans walked the earth, individuals have wondered where they came from, why they’re here, and what it all means. Religion, by and large, represents society’s attempts to answer those questions. While it isn’t always able to achieve that goal, it often succeeds at providing followers with structure, a code of ethics, and a sense of purpose. The promise of an afterlife, a core tenet of most organized religions, is another key motivator for followers, as this belief serves an important psychological function.

Christianity, Islam, Judaeism, Buddism, Hinduism, Zoarastrianism, Ancient Egypt, Inca, Mayan,  with all their diversity of beliefs, the major religions are in accord in one great teaching: Human beings are immortal and their spirit comes from a divine world and may eventually return there. Since the earliest forms of spiritual expression, this is the great promise and hope that religions have offered to their followers.

All religions seem to create elaborate constructions to support our need for there to be  life after death.

Judaeism - Gan Eden/ Hell

Zoroastrianism - Paradise / The Chinvat Bridge:

Christianity - Heaven / Hell

Greek /Hades

Islam - Paradise / Hell

Hinduism - Moksha / Samsara

Bidduism - Nirvana / The Bardo

According to Eric Fromm, humans need a stable frame of reference. Religion fills this need. In effect, humans crave answers to questions that no other source of knowledge has an answer to, which only religion may seem to answer. However, a sense of free will must be given for religion to appear healthy. An authoritarian notion of religion appears detrimental.[20]



Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times through earlier prophets such as AdamAbrahamMoses, and Jesus, among others;[15] these earlier revelations are attributed to Judaism and Christianity, which are regarded in Islam as spiritual predecessor faiths.[16] They also consider the Quran, when preserved in Classical Arabic, to be the unaltered and final revelation of God to humanity.[17] Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches of a "Final Judgement" wherein the righteous will be rewarded in paradise (Jannah) and the unrighteous will be punished in hell (Jahannam).[18]


It is important to note that Judeo-Christian and Islamic religions are Abrahamic in their nature because their roots lead to Abraham. Thus, Christians and Muslims believe in one God, in God’s prophets, in the concepts of revelation and resurrection of dead people (Bowker, 2006).


To put this into perspective, the number of genetic differences between humans and chimps is approximately 60 times less than that seen between human and mouse and about 10 times less than between the mouse and rat. On the other hand, the number of genetic differences between a human and a chimp is about 10 times more than between any two humans.

Human to human   200Ky   A  differences  -      0.123%  of genome - random common ancestor early humans

Humans to chimps 7My   10A differences -       1.23% of genomes                                                               

Human to cat                                                         10% of genome

Human to mice       50My  600A  differences -  10% of genome

Humans to dogs                                                    16% of genome

Human to bird        200My                                    35% of genome - based on early dinosaurs as common ancestor.

Each of these differences involves 2 paths, each species back to the common ancestor. 

Roughly 1% of genome changes every 10My, with an average life span of 10 years = 1M generations or 10^-6 % change per generation, 3.2B base pairs in DNA so 3000 base pair changes between generations.   10 -8 per per bp per generation !!

The spontaneous single base pair mutation rate was found to be roughly 7×10 -9 per bp per generation. Given that there are an estimated 30 replications per generation  (see vignette on “How many chromosome replications occur per generation?”) this leads to about 2×10 -10 mutations per bp per replication.

1450 BC  

A video story  Patterns in history 

As prey,  we rely on assigning causes  to survive - uncertainty makes us uncomfortable. 

Religion is appealing because it provides an unchanging philosophy of  cause and effect through creation stories and the afterlife. 

God-rulers, such as monarch's and priests,  impose a single unchanging philosophy. Build self- aggrandizing tributes. 

Scientific discovery is linked to democracy because democracy encourages competing philosophy's. 

Religious freedom is the freedom to choose your religion, not impose your beliefs on others.  If you want to discriminate in who you hire or serve then join a church, otherwise - all are created equal. If you want to carry your baby to term without consideration of your physical or mental health - go ahead. 

False premises -

Telling me what to do is infringing my  religious freedom - your religious freedom has nothing to do with others.

Restricting guns you are preventing me from protecting my family - statistically your family is less safe when you have guns in the house .

All religions seem to create elaborate constructions to support our need for there to be  life after death. 

Religious monarchies tend to impose a singular vision. 

Secular democracies encourage diverse ideas

A brief history of ideas.   Autocracy stifles new ideas, democracy stimulates competition of  ideas. 

Banner image -   Sun/Weather  Abu Simbel    Pythagoras       Isle de France      Copernicus          Darwin               

                              Prehistory       3000-300 BC  300 BC - 27 AD   27 - 1400 AD     1400-1600's         1700's - 1800's

                              Uncertainty     Phareonic       Greek                   Crusading          Renaissance       Secular democratic   

                                                        god-king's       Enlightenment.   Monarch's                                      revolution


                                                                                  trade starts.

Images                                            Egypt               Greece                 Paris                   Florence            French Revolution/Bastille 

                                                                                  Petra                                                                            Downe house Bromley

In ancient time subsistence agriculture survival revolves around the cycles of the sun and moon, and the vagaries of weather, illness and death. Religious beliefs attempted to provide sense of order to the chaos. Almost all religions; Pharaonic god-kings, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Buddism, Hindism,  Norse Gods, Inca, Mayan, have a creation story, and concept of after-life as core beliefs. 

Certainty - Sun, moon cycles. Uncertainty -  weather, plague in ancient times. Christian & Egypt images with overlay of all the names of religions.  

Fertile Crescent

3000-300 BC Phaeronic god-kings. Egyptian autocratic god kings use self funded temples and burials to demonstrate their power and immortality. 

Map with annotations, Abu Simbel, Giza, Tut. 

300 BC - 27 AD Greek Enlightenment.  Democratic republics celebrate transforming ideas, absorbed by the Roman Republic. Trans-continental trade starts - Silk Road and Incense Route. 

Map with annotations, Roman forum image, Pythagoras, Aristarcus, Erasthonese, Aristotle - geometry, heliocentric, diameter of earth, old earth. 

27 AD - 1400 AD Crusading Monarchs. European autocratic monarchs/emperors in the Middle Ages fight for control and  use church's to demonstrate power. The fighting monarchs worship a common screed - Dead sea scrolls.  

Map of Europe with annotations - Isle de France - Catholism & Cordoba - Islam & Turkey - Hagia Sophia. Orthodoxy returns - Earth centric, biblical  earth age. 

1400 -1600's Renaissance. Starts in Republic of Florence and spreads ideas around Europe

Map of Europe with annotations, Image of square - Leonardo - Copernicus/Galileo.

1700's - present. Secular democracy  dominates Industrial Revolution.

Map of world with annotations,  Revolution Images , Parliament - Greenwich - Darwin.  

                                                    Beliefs                                                     Science   

Sustainability                                                                                                Climate change

Secular Democracy                  Any                                                             Industrial revolution

Renaissance                                                                                                 Heliocentric, gravity, perspective etc.

Middle Ages                              Islam, Christianity, Buddism, Hindu      Bible 

Greek Enlightenment               Greek gods                                               Geometry, Heliocentric, Medicine

Egyptian immortals                   Immortality                                              Stone temples

Fertile crescent                          Zoroastrianism                                        Agriculture


                                                     Geology                                                  Anthropology

                                                                                                                      Hunter gatherer migration 

                                                     Ice ages                                                   Homo Sapiens evolution


                                                     Pangea, hot house earth, oil               Dinosaurs        

                                                                                                                      Sea Food era

Life develops                                                                                                Bacteria 

Earth forms

Big Bang




Species over time

Agriculture output




Universe                        1year

Earth                              3mo

Life                                 2.5mo

Dino's lasted                4 days

Oil created                    5 days 


 To evolve from apes   7 hrs 

Homo Sapiens so far 10mins


Human history            30secs

1000 years                      3secs

Video script   - 12 episodes - 3 secs = 60 secs.

Build each episode - then link them

Evolution of ideas.

Start with evolution of life with  Earth, marine life, dinosaurs, mammals, to humans.......evolution of ideas starts with agriculture, religious beliefs, scientific understanding, democracy... now faced with how to sustain.  Dynamic dissolve between images with "age" annotation. 

Big bang / stromatolites / Trex / Humans / hungt gath /agriculture/ egypt/ greek/   Sainte Chappele / Copernicus / Moon / Climate $.

Make text bar at bottom. Write long text - scroll window, 

Mammal evolution - driven by mutation rate - 7M years is a benchmark time for a new species. 

Geological evolution driven by continental drift and changes in orbital eccentricity that affect the Earth-sun distance (Milkantivitch Cycles). 

Religious evolve as a ethnic identity,  membership driven by competing invasions. 

Scientific evolution driven by education and funding increasing the number participants - enabled by democracy.

12 episodes/slides = 40 secs

Total  6 mins - 30 secs for 3-4 slides. 

Big bang                                                                 Earth

Bacteria                                                                   Humans

Agriculture                                                             Sainte Chappelle

Industrial  Rev                                                        Sustainability

Time model. Calendar - Clock . 

The sun stated as a ball of hydrogen and helium, the temperature and pressure of the material inside increased, to start fusion over about 50 million years, and will last for approximately 10 billion year, we are about halfway.  Earth formation - accretion gravity hoovers material circulating the sun, impact forms moon. 

Gas     to   Sun Orbit to Earth 

Life is created in water - bacteria to fish, moves onto land - 

Bacteria                                     Fish                                      Icstheasourous

Layers of sandstone and limestone. Land organized into Pangea with hot house earth (Cretaceous pic), tree decay forms oil. -

Grand Canyon &Pangea & Climate.  

JT extinction caused massive die off particularly marine life - possibly caused by volcanism. 

Marine die off 

Dinosaurs thrive  after JT extinction. - 5 days 

Visible in Zion. &  T rex skeleton

KT extinction, kills dinosaurs,

KT visible in CO. Dino die off 

Mammals thrive as the continents reorganize

Mammals thrive P

Homo Sapiens evolves during ice ages.   - 7 hrs 

Ice ages & P Cradle of humanity picture 


Hunter Gatherers migrate around the continents we know using ice walkways. 

Migrate & Ice age


Civilization  10,000 years ago - 30 secs

Ice melts - agriculture  starts in Fertile crescent-

Ag pic & Sumerians in Uruk & Babylon  

Egyptian immortality stable for 3000 years 

Map& Abu Simbel  & Tut & Deep Sea scrolls 

Greek enlightenment trans-continental trade on the Silk road - democracy spread by Alexander the Great. 

Silk road map & forum & Philosphers & china

Middle Ages- religious competition 

Map & Christian & Islam & Buddism & Hindu

Renaissance - science and exploration  returns.

Republic & leonardo & Copernicus & Dutch M &Galileo

Secular democracy - Industrial revolution. - 6 secs

US revolution & Democracy & Industrial Rev & DNA & Moon  


Arhenius - CO2 - temp - sea level 

Technology development

Seen as a land of opportunity for people with none 

You have a say - democracy 

There is nothing - need for everything 

You have opportunity to own land and slaves

Industrial revolution in UK - cotton machinery, darwin, geology, Newton, dinosaurs. 1800's

Wars -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Industrial revolution in US - Franklin, oil, cars, planes,   1900's 

Seen as a triumphe of capitalism 

Unlimited opportunity meets resoursfulness. 

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