A BRIEF HISTORY OF IDEAS - DETAILS
9600 BC Gobekle Tepe henges
3600 BC-500 AD Troy
800 BC Kaymakli Underground city - south of Goreme
500 BC Cappadocia founded, Goreme cliff city
110 BC Ephesus Library of Celsus - like Petra
324 AD New Rome capital of Roman Empire
330-1204 AD Constantinople - Hagia Sophia - Byzantine Christian (Greece +Turkey)
1204-1261 AD Latin Empire - Hagia Sophia is catholic
1261-1453 AD Byzantine (eastern Rome)
1453-1922 AD Ottoman Empire, Hagia Sophia is mosque
6000 BC Saqquara starts, and is used until 300BC.
3500 BC First hieroglyphic texts - linked or independent of Mesopotamia.
2670 BC Step Pyramid in Saqquara built by Imhotep - a commoner, first medical science.
2560 BC Great Pyramid of Giza & Sphinx built by Khufu
1500-1069 BC Valley of Kings burials
1334 BC Tutankamun !!
1264 BC Abu Simbel, Luxor, built by Ramases II as well as numerous invasions to expand empire.
1069 BC end of New Kingdom - start of decline - sacking of the tombs in Valley of the Kings by the priests of Amun - change of god!
550 AD Persians take over and get assimilated into culture.
331 BC Alexander the Great invades
323 BC Great Library of Alexandria, most of Karnak, Edfu, Philae built by the Ptolomy's - Greeks who invaded and were then assimilated by the culture.
30 BC Death of Cleopatra, Rome takes over.
27 AD Roman emperors take over.
2200 BC Minoan civilaization thrives in Crete, Akrotri, Knossos
1900 -1100 BC Myceanaem in Greece. Mycenae, Pylos, and Argos. Linear A&B samples
1650 BC Eruption of Thira destruction of Akrotiri
900 Bc Sparta formed
800-400 BC Olympics
659 BC First large statues
550 BC Ephesus, Turkey peaks.
550 BC Pythagoras,
598 BC Democracy in Greece
497 Bc Alexander 1
490 BC Defeat Persians in Marathon
480 -323 BC "Classical period"
480-479 BC Xerxes from Persia tries to invade - battles at Thermopylae, Salamis and finally looses at Plataea
460-320 BC Full democratic instiutions in Athens introduced by Pericles
447 BC Parthenon built
431-404 BC Pelloponesian war with Sparta
420 BC Atomic theory by Democritos
399 BC Trial and death of Socrates
336 -323 BC Alexander the Great tutored by Aristiotle - -takes over Egypt.
287 BC Archimedes
270 BC Heliocentric world by Aristarchus
200 BC Rome expands with battles with Carthage
146 BC Rome takes over Egypt and is assimilated into culture.
110 BC Ephesus Library of Celsus - like Petra
50 AD Christianity takes over
267 AD Goths take over
1770 – c. 1670 BC, Babylon max
612 – c. 320 BC. Babylon max
Built 1000BC abandoned 400AD, by Nabateans - Arabian nomads around since 4000 BC with obvious Roman influence.
A caravan trade route center down the Jordan valley to Aqaba. Does appear in Bible. "The Nabataean origin of the Arabic script is now almost universally accepted"
Roman amphitheater plus harbor
CORDOBA 814-950AD most of Spain to Pakistan is Islam starting in 632 AD. Mohammed born 570AD. Mohammed succession, now Shia more extreme in Mesopotamia region, Sunni everywhere else.
Great Mosque of Cordoba - from across river, hall of pillars inside (try side track, labyrinth or fly through), at night.
Alhambra - view on hill mountains behind, reflecting pools, at night
Capiliera village nestled in hills.
59 BC Florence established by Julius Ceasar
79 AD Pompeii
250 AD Roman Empire maximum.
697-1797 AD Republic of Venice
1204 AD Venice captures Constantinople
1300's AD Venice most powerful
1450-1527 AD Florence is center of Renniesance
1500's Florence home of the Medici
1797 AD Napoleon conquers
Cycles of domination
Egypt - Hyroglyphs
Greece - Linear A&B
Rise of Persia 550BC-637AD
Nabateans - Arabic
Rome - Christianity -
Rise of Islam. - 800 AD mid Spain to Pakistan.
Cycles of Culture
12000 BC Fertile crescent organized agriculture
3000-300 BC- Pharos's great natural wealth and cultural cohesion, veneration of after life.
1000-30 BC Greek - democracy, analytical thought, libraries. The closest thing to The Greek Goddess of Science is The Muse of Astronomy, Urania. India - 1000 BC astronomy. China 100BC-900AD 4 great inventions; gunpowder, compass, printing, papermaking.
100-300 AD Rome - Christianity,
600- 800 AD Byzantium - Islam.
1400-1500 AD Renaissance - focus on reality, analytical and freedom of thought returns.
1500-1600 AD World wide European empires emerge.
1700's Democratic revolution.
1800's Industrial revolution.
circa. 200 BC Karnak, Petra, Olympia, Ephesus, Goreme
500 BC -500 AD Nacza lines
300 BC- 1521AD Inca Empire Peru to N Chile
1190 - 1300 AD Anasazi Cliff dwellings in US
1450 AD Maccu Pichu - Incas in Peru
1438-1472 AD Aztec in Guatemala
1500 AD Mayan Ruins in Belize
Europe & Middle East
2000's BC Stonehenge
2500 BC Great Pyramids
1263 BC Abu Symbel & Luxor
576 BC Pynx was the site of Greek democracy.
447 BC Partheonon
200 BC Petra, Olympia & Ephysus
200 BC-100 AD Dead sea scrolls.
0 AD Hadrians Wall
27 AD Roman emperors take over
126 AD Pantheon in Rome
500 AD Basilica San Vitale - Byzantine
796 AD Aachen Cathederal based on Basilica.
1066 AD Tower of London Starts
1079-1532 AD Winchester Cathederal
1095 -1291 AD Crusades
1200 AD Sainte Chappelle in Paris - Gothic Style based on Aachen.
1100's AD Khajuralo Temples
1200's AD Jaiselmer Fort
1400's AD Kumbhalgargh Fort
6000's BC Great Wall starts
210 BC Terracotta Army
100 BC Compass and Paper invented
711 AD Nara Japan
1100's AD Ankor Wat
1368-1644 AD Best sections of Wall
1397 AD Golden Temple in Kyoto
1406-1420 AD Forbidden City
Once food productivity exceeded the needs of the individual farmer, the god-ruling class in Egypt had money and manpower to build up their image. They justified their positions as "gods who rule", and built progressively more elaborate tributes to themselves in the after life and the gods, with temples and tombs. Many structures featured alignment with sun and mood cycles based on detailed astronomic observations similar to other agrarian societies at Ankor Wat, Chaco Canyon, Mayans, Stonehenge. The civilization of ancient Egypt was indebted to the Nile River and its dependable seasonal flooding. The river's predictability and fertile soil allowed the Egyptians to build an empire on the basis of great agricultural wealth. Egyptians are credited as being one of the first groups of people to practice agriculture on a large scale. This was possible because of the ingenuity of the Egyptians as they developed basin irrigation. Their farming practices allowed them to grow staple food crops, especially grains such as wheat and barley, and industrial crops, such as flax and papyrus.
UNSPECIFIED - CIRCA 1990: Assyrian civilization, 7th century b.C. Scene of agricultural work and swimmers in a river. Relief from Royal Palaces of Nineveh, circa 645 b.C.
The Ionian Enligtenment
The Greek (Anatolean coast in todays Turkey) city of Miletus was the birthplace of Greek philosophy and Western scientific thought. Their approach refused to allow any supernatural actions to govern natural processes. This rejection of the supernatural did not make the philosophers atheists, rather it made them subordinate divine action to natural law which was known as Physis.
The Greeks had gods, not god-rulers, so were less authoritarian and the people had the freedom to have at least some say through democracy, and allowed the freedom to analyze the world. Archimedes, Galen, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Euclid, Democritos, Hippocrates and Aristarcus, established technologies such as water pumps, medicine, natural philosophy, geometry, atomic structure of matter, heliocentric astronomy, etc. Technology also flourished in China with 4 great inventions; gunpowder, compass, printing, papermaking.
In the late 6th century B.C., the Greek city-state of Athens began to lay the foundations for a new kind of political system. This demokratia, as it became known, was a direct democracy that gave political power to free male Athenian citizens rather than a ruling aristocratic class or dictator, which had largely been the norm in Athens for several hundred years before. Athens’ demokratia, which lasted until 322 B.C., is one of the earliest known examples of democracy; and although recent scholarship has complicated the Eurocentric view that it was the first democracy, this ancient political system was extremely influential in the Mediterranean region. By far the most significant and well-understood example is Athenian democracy in Athens. However, at least fifty-two classical Greek city-states including Corinth, Megara, and Syracuse also had democratic regimes during part of their history.
200AD 500AD 750AD 1200AD
The Romans took over Greece and Egypt initially as a Republic. After 27AD, the Roman Empire was run by emperors with Greek and Roman mythology, and controlled Europe and Middle East. In 200 AD, the Huns started the collapse in Germany, By 500 AD, the Eastern Roman empire is Christian. By 750 AD Spain and the Middle East is Islamic, and the Franks are Catholic under Charlemagne. By 1200 AD, Britain and most of Europe is now Catholic, and the crusades have started to try and push back Islam.
Medieval religion developed as a hybrid of pagan beliefs and practices and Catholicism, eventually dominating the everyday lives of peasants.
The religion of the Middle Ages, as characterized by historian Peter Brown, was about “the joining of Heaven and Earth.” As Christianity spread throughout Europe in the Early Middle Ages, the Latin Catholic Church dominated official and proscribed religious beliefs, in some cases driving pagan practices underground while in other cases incorporating pagan rites and rituals into the emerging tapestry of medieval religious structures. All life was dominated by some aspect of the Catholic Church, from life to death and throughout the calendar year, identified by hundreds of feast days.
In a society where most people – as many as 98%, were illiterate serfs and peasants, the only avenue of escape rested not on earth, but in the afterlife. Although the rigidity and unending routine of society in the Middle Ages was mitigated by festivals usually tied to important feast days of the Church, such as the carnivalesque periods before Lent or Christmas – a subject explored by historians like Z. Natalie Davis, the over-riding factor of daily life was found in conformity to Church control of everyday life.
Religion in the Middle Ages served several purposes. Catholicism represented a unifying factor as well as a controlling mechanism to define human existence within a paradigm of cosmic order brilliantly stratified and explained by the poet Dante. Detractors and dissidents were heretics, threats to the conformity of religion which formed the most important aspect of social and cultural identity.
Christianity did not immediately win the hearts and minds of the people of Europe. The process of Christianization was a slow one and, even toward the end of the Middle Ages, many people still practiced 'folk magic' and held to the beliefs of their ancestors even while observing Christian rites and rituals. The pre-Christian people – now commonly referenced as 'pagans' – had no such label for themselves. The word 'pagan' is a Christian designation from the French meaning a 'rustic,' one who came from the rural countryside, where the old beliefs and practices held tightly long after urban centers had more or less adopted orthodox Christian belief.
Through the Middle Ages the religions founded around an monotheist god, as expressed in the the dead sea scrolls (Christianity, Judaeism, Islam), are dominant under the European monarch and emperors. The architecture of places of worship became the way to express fealty, and became more and more elaborate as in the Gothic Cathedrals. Religious orthodoxy ruled.
Magna Carta 1254 AD started the devolution of power in the UK. The 1300's saw the plague decimating the population by 30%, erosion of the control of monarchs as in Magna Carta, and 100 years war between France and England over religion. In response, the late middle ages saw the rise of the Renaissance, a movement that sprang from the ashes of a crisis-ridden 14th century helped by the printing press (1440 AD) democratizing information. The Renaissance began in Italy among intellectuals of the urbanized North who instead of giving way to pessimism in the wake of the death and socio-economic upheaval around them chose to create a new society through a search for renewal or rebirth.
Republic of Florence
The republic was ruled by a council, known as the signoria. The signoria was chosen by the gonfaloniere (titular ruler of the city), who was elected every two months by Florentine guild members.
The son of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, Cosimo de' Medici succeeded his father as the head of the Medici Bank. He played a prominent role in the government of Florence until his exile in 1433, after a disastrous war with Tuscany's neighbour, the Republic of Lucca. Cosimo's exile in Venice lasted for less than a year, when the people of Florence overturned Cosimo's exile in a democratic vote. Cosimo returned to the acclaim of his people and the banishment of the Albizzi family, who had exiled him. The Renaissance began during Cosimo's de facto rule of Florence, the seeds of which had arguably been laid before the Black Death tore through Europe. Niccolò Niccoli was the leading Florence humanist scholar of the time. He appointed the first Professor of Greek, Manuel Chrysoloras (the founder of Hellenic studies in Italy), at the University of Florence in 1397. Niccoli was a keen collector of ancient manuscripts, which he bequeathed to Cosimo upon his death in 1437. Poggio Bracciolini succeeded Niccoli as the principal humanist of Florence. Bracciolini was born Arezzo in 1380. He toured Europe, searching for more ancient Greco-Roman manuscripts for Niccoli. Unlike his employer, Bracciolini also authored his own works. He was made the Chancellor of Florence shortly before his death, by Cosimo, who was his best friend.
Cosimo's fervent patronage transformed Florence into the epitome of a Renaissance city. He employed Donatello, Brunelleschi, and Michelozzo. All these artistic commissions cost Cosimo over 600,000 florins.
Foreign relations, both as a backdrop to Cosimo's rise to power and during first twenty years of his rule, were dominated by the Wars in Lombardy. This series of conflicts between the Republic of Venice and the Duchy of Milan for hegemony in Northern Italy lasted from 1423 to 1454 and involved a number of Italian states, that occasionally switched sides according to their changing interests. Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan invaded Florence twice in the 1430s, and again in 1440, but his army was finally defeated in the battle of Anghiari. The Milanese invasions were largely instigated by the exiled Albizzi family. Death of Filippo Maria in 1447 led to a major change in the alliances. In 1450 Cosimo's current ally Francesco Sforza established himself as the Duke of Milan. Florentine trade interests made her support Sforza's Milan in the war against Venice, while the fall of Constantinople in 1453 dealt a blow to Venetian finances. Eventually, the Peace of Lodi recognized Venetian and Florentine territorial gains and the legitimacy of the Sforza rule in Milan. The Milan-Florence alliance played a major role in stabilizing the peninsula for the next 40 years.
The political crisis of 1458 was the first serious challenge to the Medici rule. The cost of wars had been borne by the great families of Florence, and disproportionately so by Medici's opponents. A number of them (Serragli, Baroncelli, Mancini, Vespucci, Gianni) were practically ruined and had to sell their properties, and those were acquired by Medici's partisans at bargain prices. The opposition used partial relaxation of Medici control of the republic institutions to demand political reforms, freedom of speech in the councils and a greater share in the decision-making. Medici's party response was to use threats of force from private armies and Milanese troops and arranging a popular assembly dominated by Cosimo's supporters. It exiled the opponents of the regime and introduced the open vote in councils, ``in order to unmask the anti-Medician rebels".
From 1458 Cosimo withdrew from any official public role, but his control of Florence was greater than ever. In the spring of 1459 he entertained the new pope Pius II, who stopped in Florence on his way to the Council of Mantua to declare a crusade against the Ottomans, and Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Francesco's son, who was to escort the pope from Florence to Mantua. In his memoirs, Pius said that Cosimo “was considered the arbiter of war and peace, the regulator of law; less a citizen than master of his city. Political councils were held in his home; the magistrates he chose were elected; he was king in all but name and legal status. . . . Some asserted that his tyranny was intolerable."
The Renaissance flourished in the Republic of Florence a community run by a series of oligarch families elected by a small group of power brokers. The Medichi's supported a new breed of open thinkers, such as Leonardo Da Vinchi, Michaelangelo, etc. Leonardo Da Vinchi (1452-1549 AD) predates Columbus, Magellan's voyage, Elizabeth 1, Copernicus heliocentric theory, Dutch Masters. Galileo (1564-1642 AD) still fell foul of the Catholic Church dogma for championing Copernicus's ideas, and in 1859 Darwin imposed a self imposed delay in Origin of Species possibly due to religious pressure with debate continued through the Scopes monkey trial in 1925, until today.
1520 AD Luther excommunicated started the Reformation.
The Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment, or simply the Enlightenment, was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated Europe in the 16-1700's with global influences and effects. The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on the value of human happiness, the pursuit of knowledge obtained by means of reason and the evidence of the senses, and ideals such as liberty, progress
In 1749, the French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc proposed that age of the earth was much longer than the bible suggested. By the early 1800's the deposition of strata was accepted, and that fossils could be used to identify layers. Even though the first dinosaur bone was found in 1674, it was only identified as an extinct giant lizard in 1824.
USA established their democratic revolution in 1777 AD, the French in 1799 AD. It was not until 1802 that a general election process was established in the UK is response to the revolutions in the US and France. The great democratic powers then proceeded to dominate the Industrial Revolution and the post World War 2 technology revolution. At the same time societies controlled by religious orthodoxy or monarchies, such as Tsarist Russia, Afghanistan etc seem unable to progress.
In the end, religion just provides an unchanging, fact-free, construction whereas understanding reality is the only way to make progress, democracy is a critical freedom that allows freedom of thought.
Henry E. Sigerist 1938. Science and democracy. "it cannot be mere coincidence that science actually has flourished during democratic periods"
Monarchy - Sacred kingship or theocratic kingship, religious and political concept by which a ruler is seen as an incarnation, manifestation, mediator, or agent of the sacred or holy (the transcendent or supernatural realm).
Democracy - Republic - a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch.
Conflicts in the 1990's
1905 started with a revolution in Russia to make the Tsars a constitutional monarchy. In 1914, the assassination of the Austro-Hungarian heir by a Serb, triggered a cascade of allies to join WW1 with Germany, Austro-Hungary, Italy and the Ottomans against France, England, Russia, China and eventually USA - the autocrats against the democracies. By 1918, a second revolution resulted in a Russian communist autocracy.
The poverty in post WW1 Germany eventually led to the democratic election of Hitler who made himself dictator, and who's expansionist aims precipitated WW2 between the autocracies of Germany, Italy and Japan against everyone else. Post war Europe was divided by the "Iron curtain" forming a communist "sphere of influence". This time, stability in democratic Europe was maintained by financial support and continued passive military presence. Civil war in China led to a communist take over in 1949.
Post WW2, the remining world empires gave up direct rule, the power conflict became US led democracy vs. USSR led communism using proxy countries forming "spheres of influence". Communist expansion stalled after conflict in Korea and Vietnam. In 1976, Mao Tse Tung died and China moved to economic liberalization. Eventually communism in USSR collapsed with the fall of the Wall in 1989.
As communism declined, Islamic purists reemerged resisting external influences which resulted the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979, the rejection of USSR by Afghanistan in 1989, the attack on the Twin Powers in 2000, and subsequent entanglement in Afghanistan, and Iran.
Since the earliest humans walked the earth, individuals have wondered where they came from, why they’re here, and what it all means. Religion, by and large, represents society’s attempts to answer those questions. While it isn’t always able to achieve that goal, it often succeeds at providing followers with structure, a code of ethics, and a sense of purpose. The promise of an afterlife, a core tenet of most organized religions, is another key motivator for followers, as this belief serves an important psychological function.
Christianity, Islam, Judaeism, Buddism, Hinduism, Zoarastrianism, Ancient Egypt, Inca, Mayan, with all their diversity of beliefs, the major religions are in accord in one great teaching: Human beings are immortal and their spirit comes from a divine world and may eventually return there. Since the earliest forms of spiritual expression, this is the great promise and hope that religions have offered to their followers.
All religions seem to create elaborate constructions to support our need for there to be life after death.
Judaeism - Gan Eden/ Hell
Zoroastrianism - Paradise / The Chinvat Bridge:
Christianity - Heaven / Hell
Islam - Paradise / Hell
Hinduism - Moksha / Samsara
Bidduism - Nirvana / The Bardo
According to Eric Fromm, humans need a stable frame of reference. Religion fills this need. In effect, humans crave answers to questions that no other source of knowledge has an answer to, which only religion may seem to answer. However, a sense of free will must be given for religion to appear healthy. An authoritarian notion of religion appears detrimental.
Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times through earlier prophets such as Adam, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, among others; these earlier revelations are attributed to Judaism and Christianity, which are regarded in Islam as spiritual predecessor faiths. They also consider the Quran, when preserved in Classical Arabic, to be the unaltered and final revelation of God to humanity. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches of a "Final Judgement" wherein the righteous will be rewarded in paradise (Jannah) and the unrighteous will be punished in hell (Jahannam).
It is important to note that Judeo-Christian and Islamic religions are Abrahamic in their nature because their roots lead to Abraham. Thus, Christians and Muslims believe in one God, in God’s prophets, in the concepts of revelation and resurrection of dead people (Bowker, 2006).
To put this into perspective, the number of genetic differences between humans and chimps is approximately 60 times less than that seen between human and mouse and about 10 times less than between the mouse and rat. On the other hand, the number of genetic differences between a human and a chimp is about 10 times more than between any two humans.
Human to human 200Ky A differences - 0.123% of genome - random common ancestor early humans
Humans to chimps 7My 10A differences - 1.23% of genomes
Human to cat 10% of genome
Human to mice 50My 600A differences - 10% of genome
Humans to dogs 16% of genome
Human to bird 200My 35% of genome - based on early dinosaurs as common ancestor.
Each of these differences involves 2 paths, each species back to the common ancestor.
Roughly 1% of genome changes every 10My, with an average life span of 10 years = 1M generations or 10^-6 % change per generation, 3.2B base pairs in DNA so 3000 base pair changes between generations. 10 -8 per per bp per generation !!
The spontaneous single base pair mutation rate was found to be roughly 7×10 -9 per bp per generation. Given that there are an estimated 30 replications per generation (see vignette on “How many chromosome replications occur per generation?”) this leads to about 2×10 -10 mutations per bp per replication.
A video story Patterns in history
As prey, we rely on assigning causes to survive - uncertainty makes us uncomfortable.
Religion is appealing because it provides an unchanging philosophy of cause and effect through creation stories and the afterlife.
God-rulers, such as monarch's and priests, impose a single unchanging philosophy. Build self- aggrandizing tributes.
Scientific discovery is linked to democracy because democracy encourages competing philosophy's.
Religious freedom is the freedom to choose your religion, not impose your beliefs on others. If you want to discriminate in who you hire or serve then join a church, otherwise - all are created equal. If you want to carry your baby to term without consideration of your physical or mental health - go ahead.
False premises -
Telling me what to do is infringing my religious freedom - your religious freedom has nothing to do with others.
Restricting guns you are preventing me from protecting my family - statistically your family is less safe when you have guns in the house .
All religions seem to create elaborate constructions to support our need for there to be life after death.
Religious monarchies tend to impose a singular vision.
Secular democracies encourage diverse ideas
A brief history of ideas. Autocracy stifles new ideas, democracy stimulates competition of ideas.
Banner image - Sun/Weather Abu Simbel Pythagoras Isle de France Copernicus Darwin
Prehistory 3000-300 BC 300 BC - 27 AD 27 - 1400 AD 1400-1600's 1700's - 1800's
Uncertainty Phareonic Greek Crusading Renaissance Secular democratic
god-king's Enlightenment. Monarch's revolution
Images Egypt Greece Paris Florence French Revolution/Bastille
Petra Downe house Bromley
In ancient time subsistence agriculture survival revolves around the cycles of the sun and moon, and the vagaries of weather, illness and death. Religious beliefs attempted to provide sense of order to the chaos. Almost all religions; Pharaonic god-kings, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Buddism, Hindism, Norse Gods, Inca, Mayan, have a creation story, and concept of after-life as core beliefs.
Certainty - Sun, moon cycles. Uncertainty - weather, plague in ancient times. Christian & Egypt images with overlay of all the names of religions.
3000-300 BC Phaeronic god-kings. Egyptian autocratic god kings use self funded temples and burials to demonstrate their power and immortality.
Map with annotations, Abu Simbel, Giza, Tut.
300 BC - 27 AD Greek Enlightenment. Democratic republics celebrate transforming ideas, absorbed by the Roman Republic. Trans-continental trade starts - Silk Road and Incense Route.
Map with annotations, Roman forum image, Pythagoras, Aristarcus, Erasthonese, Aristotle - geometry, heliocentric, diameter of earth, old earth.
27 AD - 1400 AD Crusading Monarchs. European autocratic monarchs/emperors in the Middle Ages fight for control and use church's to demonstrate power. The fighting monarchs worship a common screed - Dead sea scrolls.
Map of Europe with annotations - Isle de France - Catholism & Cordoba - Islam & Turkey - Hagia Sophia. Orthodoxy returns - Earth centric, biblical earth age.
1400 -1600's Renaissance. Starts in Republic of Florence and spreads ideas around Europe
Map of Europe with annotations, Image of square - Leonardo - Copernicus/Galileo.
1700's - present. Secular democracy dominates Industrial Revolution.
Map of world with annotations, Revolution Images , Parliament - Greenwich - Darwin.
Sustainability Climate change
Secular Democracy Any Industrial revolution
Renaissance Heliocentric, gravity, perspective etc.
Middle Ages Islam, Christianity, Buddism, Hindu Bible
Greek Enlightenment Greek gods Geometry, Heliocentric, Medicine
Egyptian immortals Immortality Stone temples
Fertile crescent Zoroastrianism Agriculture
Hunter gatherer migration
Ice ages Homo Sapiens evolution
Pangea, hot house earth, oil Dinosaurs
Sea Food era
Life develops Bacteria
Species over time
Dino's lasted 4 days
Oil created 5 days
To evolve from apes 7 hrs
Homo Sapiens so far 10mins
Human history 30secs
1000 years 3secs
Video script - 12 episodes - 3 secs = 60 secs.
Build each episode - then link them
Evolution of ideas.
Start with evolution of life with Earth, marine life, dinosaurs, mammals, to humans.......evolution of ideas starts with agriculture, religious beliefs, scientific understanding, democracy... now faced with how to sustain. Dynamic dissolve between images with "age" annotation.
Big bang / stromatolites / Trex / Humans / hungt gath /agriculture/ egypt/ greek/ Sainte Chappele / Copernicus / Moon / Climate $.
Make text bar at bottom. Write long text - scroll window,
Mammal evolution - driven by mutation rate - 7M years is a benchmark time for a new species.
Geological evolution driven by continental drift and changes in orbital eccentricity that affect the Earth-sun distance (Milkantivitch Cycles).
Religious evolve as a ethnic identity, membership driven by competing invasions.
Scientific evolution driven by education and funding increasing the number participants - enabled by democracy.
12 episodes/slides = 40 secs
Total 6 mins - 30 secs for 3-4 slides.
Big bang Earth
Agriculture Sainte Chappelle
Industrial Rev Sustainability
Time model. Calendar - Clock .
The sun stated as a ball of hydrogen and helium, the temperature and pressure of the material inside increased, to start fusion over about 50 million years, and will last for approximately 10 billion year, we are about halfway. Earth formation - accretion gravity hoovers material circulating the sun, impact forms moon.
Gas to Sun Orbit to Earth
Life is created in water - bacteria to fish, moves onto land -
Bacteria Fish Icstheasourous
Layers of sandstone and limestone. Land organized into Pangea with hot house earth (Cretaceous pic), tree decay forms oil. -
Grand Canyon &Pangea & Climate.
JT extinction caused massive die off particularly marine life - possibly caused by volcanism.
Marine die off
Dinosaurs thrive after JT extinction. - 5 days
Visible in Zion. & T rex skeleton
KT extinction, kills dinosaurs,
KT visible in CO. Dino die off
Mammals thrive as the continents reorganize
Mammals thrive P
Homo Sapiens evolves during ice ages. - 7 hrs
Ice ages & P Cradle of humanity picture
Hunter Gatherers migrate around the continents we know using ice walkways.
Migrate & Ice age
Civilization 10,000 years ago - 30 secs
Ice melts - agriculture starts in Fertile crescent-
Ag pic & Sumerians in Uruk & Babylon
Egyptian immortality stable for 3000 years
Map& Abu Simbel & Tut & Deep Sea scrolls
Greek enlightenment trans-continental trade on the Silk road - democracy spread by Alexander the Great.
Silk road map & forum & Philosphers & china
Middle Ages- religious competition
Map & Christian & Islam & Buddism & Hindu
Renaissance - science and exploration returns.
Republic & leonardo & Copernicus & Dutch M &Galileo
Secular democracy - Industrial revolution. - 6 secs
US revolution & Democracy & Industrial Rev & DNA & Moon
Arhenius - CO2 - temp - sea level
Seen as a land of opportunity for people with none
You have a say - democracy
There is nothing - need for everything
You have opportunity to own land and slaves
Industrial revolution in UK - cotton machinery, darwin, geology, Newton, dinosaurs. 1800's
Industrial revolution in US - Franklin, oil, cars, planes, 1900's
Seen as a triumphe of capitalism
Unlimited opportunity meets resoursfulness.