IC's  the futures ​- Moores law and 3D devices - brains 

FPD remarkably large 100M (10^8) transistors on glass sheets 3 .5 meters on a side - no defects larger than the wavelength of light...cinema in your home - sit 2x screen width away. 12 ft away from 6 ft wide (85" diagonal) screen. Self opacity - smallest possible transistor tucked in a corner,  5 pattern layers . 1 um feature size, it is a street (10 yds) then glass is 20,000 Miles on a side and a pixel is 3 miles on a side. 

Moores law 

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277918127_Flat_panel_display_glass_Current_status_and_future

https://www.crystec.com/crylcde.htm

LED's  the future

Light collecting diodes,  limited by the available energy density, Moores alw

Solar cells very large area diodes to collect limited energy.  the future Moores  law.

Cameras - diode light collectors linked to storage memory cell. Full frame camera 35 mm 30 M pixels . Light collection. Device design - self opacity, low background noise. Same as IC .   The future 

I just got an clear image of Rhea at ISO 3200 exp 1 sec.

Sun is apparent magnitude - 27, Rhea is magnitude 10 so  relative to sun, rhea is 4 E-15 less intense

Sun produces 1000 W m-2, or 250 W m-2 seen by Si detector. 

Rhea produces 1E-12 watts m-2 seen by Si detector 

Incident on a 70 mm lens aperture with area 0.006 m-2 with a 1 sec exposure = 6e-15 joules. 

A 2 eV photon is worth 4e-19 joules.

So the number of photons on 1 pixel in the camera in 1 sec = 6E-15/4E-19 = 1E4  = 10,000 photons gets an image. 

 

background noise in a full frame camera is around 2 out of 255,

Sony 7aS full frame at ISO 400K, is imaging 100 photons a sec.  so noise level is around 10 photons per sec. CCD camera can image single photons ? 

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