To evolve from apes 7 hrs
Homo Sapiens so far 10mins
Human history 30secs
1000 years 3secs
I year 3msec
IC's the futures - Moores law and 3D devices - brains
FPD remarkably large 100M (10^8) transistors on glass sheets 3 .5 meters on a side - no defects larger than the wavelength of light...cinema in your home - sit 2x screen width away. 12 ft away from 6 ft wide (85" diagonal) screen. Self opacity - smallest possible transistor tucked in a corner, 5 pattern layers . 1 um feature size, it is a street (10 yds) then glass is 20,000 Miles on a side and a pixel is 3 miles on a side.
LED's the future
Light collecting diodes, limited by the available energy density, Moores alw
Solar cells very large area diodes to collect limited energy. the future Moores law.
Cameras - diode light collectors linked to storage memory cell. Full frame camera 35 mm 30 M pixels . Light collection. Device design - self opacity, low background noise. Same as IC . The future
I just got an clear image of Rhea at ISO 3200 exp 1 sec.
Sun is apparent magnitude - 27, Rhea is magnitude 10 so relative to sun, rhea is 4 E-15 less intense
Sun produces 1000 W m-2, or 250 W m-2 seen by Si detector.
Rhea produces 1E-12 watts m-2 seen by Si detector
Incident on a 70 mm lens aperture with area 0.006 m-2 with a 1 sec exposure = 6e-15 joules.
A 2 eV photon is worth 4e-19 joules.
So the number of photons on 1 pixel in the camera in 1 sec = 6E-15/4E-19 = 1E4 = 10,000 photons gets an image.
background noise in a full frame camera is around 2 out of 255,
Sony 7aS full frame at ISO 400K, is imaging 100 photons a sec. so noise level is around 10 photons per sec. CCD camera can image single photons ?