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IC's  the futures ​- Moores law and 3D devices - brains 

FPD remarkably large 100M (10^8) transistors on glass sheets 3 .5 meters on a side - no defects larger than the wavelength of light...cinema in your home - sit 2x screen width away. 12 ft away from 6 ft wide (85" diagonal) screen. Self opacity - smallest possible transistor tucked in a corner,  5 pattern layers . 1 um feature size, it is a street (10 yds) then glass is 20,000 Miles on a side and a pixel is 3 miles on a side. 

Moores law

LED's  the future

Light collecting diodes,  limited by the available energy density, Moores alw

Solar cells very large area diodes to collect limited energy.  the future Moores  law.

Cameras - diode light collectors linked to storage memory cell. Full frame camera 35 mm 30 M pixels . Light collection. Device design - self opacity, low background noise. Same as IC .   The future 

I just got an clear image of Rhea at ISO 3200 exp 1 sec.

Sun is apparent magnitude - 27, Rhea is magnitude 10 so  relative to sun, rhea is 4 E-15 less intense

Sun produces 1000 W m-2, or 250 W m-2 seen by Si detector. 

Rhea produces 1E-12 watts m-2 seen by Si detector 

Incident on a 70 mm lens aperture with area 0.006 m-2 with a 1 sec exposure = 6e-15 joules. 

A 2 eV photon is worth 4e-19 joules.

So the number of photons on 1 pixel in the camera in 1 sec = 6E-15/4E-19 = 1E4  = 10,000 photons gets an image. 


background noise in a full frame camera is around 2 out of 255,

Sony 7aS full frame at ISO 400K, is imaging 100 photons a sec.  so noise level is around 10 photons per sec. CCD camera can image single photons ? 

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