To evolve from apes 7 hrs
Homo Sapiens so far 10mins
Human history 30secs
1000 years 3secs
I year 3msec
EGYPT, JORDAN & ITALY MARCH 2023
Middle East Itinerary 23
Cairo - Pyramids & Sphinx
Valley of Tombs
London from the Thames
Music: "Thames flows softly" by Maddy Prior and Girls
Cordoba and Granada, Spain
Music: "Isla Mujeres" by Javier Ruibal
Paris from the Seine, Loire Chateaux, and Bruges
Music: "Cest si Bon" by C'est Si Bon from Live at the Bpc
"De Vier Wevers" by Water and Wijn.
Iberian Lynx, Red Legged Partridge and Mountain goat in Southern Spain.
England, France and Belgium
6000 BC Saqquara starts, and is used until 300BC. - Farming images.
3500 BC First hieroglyphic texts - linked or independent of Mesopotamia.
2670 BC Step Pyramid in Saqquara P. Djoser built by Imhotep - a commoner, first medical science.
2560 BC Great Pyramid of Giza & Sphinx built by P. Khufu
1500-1069 BC Valley of Kings burials
1473–1458 BC Mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri opposite Luxor
1388-1351 BC Amenhotep III - Luxor started. Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III opposite Luxor
1351-1334 BC Akenhaten source of Atenism (Montheist Sun worship)
1334 BC Tutankamun !! in Cairo museum.
1264 BC Abu Simbel, Luxor finished built by Ramases II as well as numerous invasions to expand empire.
1143–1136 BC Rameses VI tomb in Valley of Kings - has star diagonal wall decorations.
1069 BC end of New Kingdom - start of decline - sacking of the tombs in Valley of the Kings by the priests of Amun - change of god!
331 BC Alexander the Great invades
323 BC Great Library of Alexandria, most of Karnak - Temple of Amun, Edfu - Temple of Horus , Philae built by the Ptolomy's - Greeks who invaded and were then assimilated by the culture. Earth centric astronomy.
196 BC Rosetta Stone written - found in Memphis Egypt , The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic and Demotic scripts respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient Greek.
30 BC Death of Cleopatra, Rome takes over
Various gods were said to hold the highest position in divine society, including the solar deity Ra, the mysterious god Amun, and the mother goddess Isis. Anchored in the idea of continuing a culture by preparing for the afterlife of rulers and key individuals with elaborate mausoleums.
Ra - god of gods. At the end of Egyptian civilization, Amun (or sometimes Amun-Ra) became a creator god alongside Ra
Isis - goddess of magic and secrets
Horus - falcon protector of pharohs
Osiris - god sent by Ra as pharaoh to rule over the first inhabitants of Egypt
Nephthys - funerary goddess who watches over the sarcophagi of the deceased Egyptians
Anubis - jackal-headed god of the dead. He is the one who greets the Egyptian dead after they die.
The Giza pyramid complex, also called the Giza necropolis, is the site on the Giza Plateau in Greater Cairo, Egypt that includes the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Pyramid of Menkaure, along with their associated pyramid complexes and the Great Sphinx of Giza. All were built during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, between 2600 and 2500 BC. The site also includes several cemeteries and the remains of a workers' village.
A sphinx is a mythical creature with the head of a human, the body of a lion, and the wings of a falcon.
In Greek tradition, the sphinx has the head of a woman, the haunches of a lion, and the wings of a bird. She is mythicized as treacherous and merciless, and will kill and eat those who cannot answer her riddle. This deadly version of a sphinx appears in the myth and drama of Oedipus.
Unlike the Greek sphinx, which was a woman, the Egyptian sphinx is typically shown as a man. In addition, the Egyptian sphinx was viewed as benevolent but having a ferocious strength similar to the malevolent Greek version. Both were thought of as guardians and often flank the entrances to temples.
Saqqara is an Egyptian village in Giza Governorate, that contains ancient burial grounds of Egyptian royalty, serving as the necropolis for the ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara contains numerous pyramids, including the Step pyramid of Djoser, sometimes referred to as the Step Tomb, and a number of mastaba tombs. Located some 30 km (19 mi) south of modern-day Cairo, Saqqara covers an area of around 7 by 1.5 km (4.3 by 0.9 mi).
Saqqara contains the oldest complete stone building complex known in history, the Pyramid of Djoser, built during the Third Dynasty. Another sixteen Egyptian kings built pyramids at Saqqara, which are now in various states of preservation. High officials added private funeral monuments to this necropolis during the entire Pharaonic period. It remained an important complex for non-royal burials and cult ceremonies for more than 3,000 years, well into Ptolemaic and Roman times.
Abu Simbel Ramases 2 1200BC -
Abu Simbel is a historic site comprising two massive rock-cut temples in the village of Abu Simbel near the border with Sudan. It is situated on the western bank of Lake Nasser, about 230 km (140 mi) southwest of Aswan (about 300 km (190 mi) by road). The twin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside in the 13th century BC, during the 19th Dynasty reign of the Pharaoh Ramesses II. They serve as a lasting monument to the king Ramesses II. His wife Nefertari and children can be seen in smaller figures by his feet, considered to be of lesser importance and were not given the same position of scale. This commemorates his victory at the Battle of Kadesh. Their huge external rock relief figures have become iconic
The Philae temple complex is an island-based temple complex in the reservoir of the Aswan Low Dam, downstream of the Aswan Dam and Lake Nasser, Egypt.
The oldest temple to have undoubtedly stood on the island, as well as the first evidence of Isis-worship there, was a small kiosk built by Psamtik II of the 26th Dynasty.: 76–77 This was followed by contributions from Amasis II (26th Dynasty) and Nectanebo I (30th Dynasty). Of these early buildings, only two elements built by Nectanebo I survive– a kiosk that was originally the vestibule of the old Isis temple, and a gateway which was later incorporated into the first pylon of the current temple.
More than two thirds of Philae's surviving structures were built in the Ptolemaic era, during which the island became a prominent site of pilgrimage not only for Egyptians and Nubians but for pilgrims from as far as Anatolia, Crete, and the Greek mainland. Some of these pilgrims marked their presence with inscriptions on the temple walls, including votive inscriptions known as proskynemata, as well as other types. Among these are inscriptions left by four Romans in 116 BC, which represent the oldest known Latin inscriptions in Egypt.
Along with the various contributions of Ptolemaic rulers, Philae also received additions from the Nubian king Arqamani, who contributed to the Temple of Arensnuphis and the mammisi, and his successor Adikhalamani, whose name has been found on a stela on the island. Not related to Claudius Ptolemy c. 100 – c. 170 AD),the principal earth centric astronomer.
The Temple of Edfu is an Egyptian temple located on the west bank of the Nile in Edfu, Upper Egypt. The city was known in the Hellenistic period in Koinē Greek: It is one of the best preserved shrines in Egypt. The temple was built in the Ptolemaic Kingdom between 237 and 57 BC. The inscriptions on its walls provide important information on language, myth and religion during the Hellenistic period in Egypt. In particular, the Temple's inscribed building texts "provide details [both] of its construction, and also preserve information about the mythical interpretation of this and all other temples as the Island of Creation." There are also "important scenes and inscriptions of the Sacred Drama which related the age-old conflict between Horus and Seth." They are translated by the Edfu-Project.
VALLEY OF KINGS Tut 1361
The Valley of the Kings is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, rock-cut tombs were excavated for the pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom (the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt).
The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile opposite Thebes (modern Luxor), within the heart of the Theban Necropolis. The wadi consists of two valleys: the East Valley (where the majority of the royal tombs are situated) and the West Valley (Valley of the Monkeys).
With the 2005 discovery of a new chamber and the 2008 discovery of two further tomb entrances, the valley is known to contain 63 tombs and chambers (ranging in size from KV54, a simple pit, to KV5, a complex tomb with over 120 chambers). It was the principal burial place of the major royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, as well as a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues as to the beliefs and funerary practices of the period. Almost all of the tombs seem to have been opened and robbed in antiquity, but they still give an idea of the opulence and power of the pharaohs.
LUXOR AND KARNAK
Luxor is a modern city in Upper (southern) Egypt which includes the site of the Ancient Egyptian city of Thebes.
Luxor has frequently been characterized as the "world's greatest open-air museum", as the ruins of the Egyptian temple complexes at Karnak and Luxor stand within the modern city. Immediately opposite, across the River Nile, lie the monuments, temples and tombs of the west bank Theban Necropolis, which includes the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens. Thousands of tourists from all around the world arrive annually to visit Luxor's monuments, contributing greatly to the economy of the modern city.
Karnak is the modern day name for the Temple of Amun located at Thebes. Construction began during the reign of Pharaoh Senusret I, but it was built over 2,000 years under the influence of different rulers. It was dedicated to Amun, the god of sun and air, but it was also a place for ancient Egyptians to worship Osiris, Isis, and Ptah, making it one of the most sacred landmarks in the country.
The Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III, also known as Kom el-Hettân, was built by the main architect Amenhotep, son of Hapu, for Pharaoh Amenhotep III during the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom. The mortuary temple is located on the Western bank of the Nile river, across from the eastern bank city of Luxor.
In 305 BC, he declared himself Pharaoh Ptolemy I, later known as Sōter "Saviour". The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. Like the earlier dynasties of ancient Egypt, the Ptolemaic dynasty practiced inbreeding including sibling marriage, but this did not start in earnest until nearly a century into the dynasty's history. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy, while queens regnant were all called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. Her apparent suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt.
Ptolemy was a Macedonian Greek general, historian and companion of Alexander the Great from the Kingdom of Macedon in northern Greece who became ruler of Egypt, part of Alexander's former empire. Ptolemy was pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 305/304 BC to his death. He was the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty, which ruled Egypt until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC, turning the country into a Hellenistic kingdom and Alexandria into a center of Greek culture. Ptolemy also had the Library of Alexandria built.
Ptolemy I died in 282 BC and was succeeded by his son with Berenice, Ptolemy II. Almost all subsequent pharaohs of Egypt, with a few exceptions, were named Ptolemies until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC, ending the Macedonian family's rule.
7000 BC Ain Ghazal statues, museum
500 BC Petra, Wadi Rum - Nabatean - Silk/Incense Road.
400 BC Jerash - Roman
200 BC Dead Sea scrolls
600 AD Madaba Christian mosaic
1200 AD Shoubak Crusader castle
The Jordan Museum is located in Ras Al-Ein district of Amman, Jordan. Built in 2014, the museum is the largest museum in Jordan and hosts the country's most important archaeological findings. Its two main permanent exhibitions are the Dead Sea Scrolls, including the Copper Scroll, and the 9000-year-old ʿAin Ghazal statues, which are among the oldest human statues ever made. The museum collection includes animal bones dating back to 1.5 million years, 9000-year-old ʿAin Ghazal lime plaster statues, part of the Dead Sea Scrolls, including the Copper Scroll, and a reproduction of the Mesha Stele.
The human statues found at 'Ain Ghazal constitute one of the world's oldest human statues ever made by human civilization dating back to 7000 BC. 'Ain Ghazal is a major Neolithic village in Amman that was discovered in 1981. The Dead Sea Copper Scroll was found near Khirbet Qumran, which is an inventory of hidden gold and silver in specie, but also some vessels, presumably taken from the Temple in Jerusalem in circa 68 CE. It is written in a Mishnaic-style of Hebrew.
The Mesha Stele is a large black basalt stone that was erected in Moab and was inscribed by Moabite king Mesha, in which he lauds himself for the building projects that he initiated in Moab (modern day Al-Karak) and commemorates his glory and victory against the Israelites. The stele constitutes one of the most important direct accounts of biblical history. Other major artifacts are the Balu'a Stele, with an Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription, and the marble head of the Greek goddess Tyche.
The ancient Roman city of Jerash, an archaeological masterpiece framed by the hills of Gilead outside of Amman. It was founded by the soldiers of Alexander the Great during the 4th century BC and later joined the Roman Decapolis. This prosperous city was organized along a grid of wide, colonnaded streets and its gems include a triumphal arch, stadium, monumental fountain,
Close by Mt. Nebo, is a long a destination for Christian pilgrimage. This is the mountain where Moses was allowed to view the Holy Land, yet not allowed to enter it. Today it is the site of the Church of Moses, built by the first Christians. The views over Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Israel are tremendous. When the weather is clear, we may even see Jerusalem, about 30 miles away.
Madaba, known as the City of Mosaics, St. George’s Church houses a world famous mosaic floor that is a large map of Palestine, including a detailed mosaic of Jerusalem as it was during the 6th century AD.
Shoubakis a 12th century Crusader castle, Montréal. Perched on a hilltop, it dominated the main route from Egypt to Syria, and was able to tax both traders and those on pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina. The castle eventually fell to the troops of the sultan Saladin in 1189.
Built 1000BC abandoned 400AD, by Nabateans - Arabian nomads around since 4000 BC with obvious Roman influence. Before Alexander the Great.
A caravan trade "Incense routes" crossroads NS down the Jordan valley to Aqaba, and EW from Persian Gulf to Gaza a port to Rome. Does appear in Bible. "The Nabataean origin of the Arabic script is now almost universally accepted".
The term 'Incense Routes' refers to a number of different directions traders took between southern Arabia on the Persian Gulf and the port of Gaza between the 7th/6th centuries BCE and the 2nd century CE. Trade along these routes seems to have become most lucrative c. 3rd century BCE by which time the Nabateans had control of the most important cities along the routes. The Incense Routes do not describe a single road or roads between Arabia and Gaza but a general direction merchants traveled between those two points. According to Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE), the routes encompassed 1,200 miles (1,931 km) and took 65 days to travel one way with a stopover at a city, ideally, every night.
The Incense Trade Route was an ancient network of major land and sea trading routes linking the Mediterranean world with eastern and southern sources of incense, spices and other luxury goods, stretching from Mediterranean ports across the Levant and Egypt through Northeastern Africa and Arabia to India and beyond. These routes collectively served as channels for the trading of goods such as Arabian frankincense and myrrh; Indian spices, precious stones, pearls, ebony, silk and fine textiles; and from the Horn of Africa, rare woods, feathers, animal skins, Somali frankincense, gold, and slaves. The incense land trade from South Arabia to the Mediterranean flourished between roughly the 7th century BC and the 2nd century AD.
Wadi Rum gained fame as the place where Lawrence of Arabia first met the Arab rebillion.
Walk into plaza - panorama of plaza
Turntable of Treasury entrance - view to the South West - mid morning sun.
Walk into Treasury
Panorama of region leading to top down view of Treasury - Al Khubtha trail 2-3 hrs round trip.
Survey of entire facility
Street of Facades
Tour of Wadi - Lawrence of Arabia Steal. Slow side track with moving foreground of camels.
Night sky - Milky Way rotates - Use Sony 8mm on tripod with timer.
697-1797 AD Republic of Venice
1204 AD Captures Costantinople
1300's AD Most powerful
1453 AD Looses Constantinople
1797 AD Napoleon conquers
Today, there are numerous attractions in Venice, such as St Mark's Basilica, the Doge's Palace, the Grand Canal, and the Piazza San Marco.
Two of the most noted Venetian writers were Marco Polo in the Middle Ages and, later, Giacomo Casanova. Polo (1254–1324) was a merchant who voyaged to the Orient. His series of books, co-written with Rustichello da Pisa and titled Il Milione provided important knowledge of the lands east of Europe, from the Middle East to China, Japan, and Russia. Giacomo Casanova (1725–1798) was a prolific writer and adventurer best remembered for his autobiography, Histoire De Ma Vie (Story of My Life), which links his colourful lifestyle to the city of Venice.
Venice has a rich and diverse architectural style, the most prominent of which is the Gothic style. Venetian Gothic architecture is a term given to a Venetian building style combining the use of the Gothic lancet arch with the curved ogee arch, due to Byzantine and Ottoman influences. The style originated in 14th-century Venice, with a confluence of Byzantine style from Constantinople, Islamic influences from Spain and Venice's eastern trading partners, and early Gothic forms from mainland Italy. Chief examples of the style are the Doge's Palace and the Ca' d'Oro in the city. The city also has several Renaissance and Baroque buildings, including the Ca' Pesaro and the Ca' Rezzonico.
Venetian taste was conservative and Renaissance architecture only really became popular in buildings from about the 1470s. More than in the rest of Italy, it kept much of the typical form of the Gothic palazzi, which had evolved to suit Venetian conditions. In turn the transition to Baroque architecture was also fairly gentle. This gives the crowded buildings on the Grand Canal and elsewhere an essential harmony, even where buildings from very different periods sit together. For example, round-topped arches are far more common in Renaissance buildings than elsewhere.
It has long been a matter of debate why the Renaissance began in Florence, and not elsewhere in Italy. Scholars have noted several features unique to Florentine cultural life that may have caused such a cultural movement. Many have emphasized the role played by the Medici, a banking family and later ducal ruling house, in patronizing and stimulating the arts. Lorenzo de' Medici (1449–1492) was the catalyst for an enormous amount of arts patronage, encouraging his countrymen to commission works from the leading artists of Florence, including Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, and Michelangelo Buonarroti. Works by Neri di Bicci, Botticelli, da Vinci, and Filippino Lippi had been commissioned additionally by the Convent of San Donato in Scopeto in Florence.
The Renaissance was certainly underway before Lorenzo de' Medici came to power – indeed, before the Medici family itself achieved hegemony in Florentine society. Some historians have postulated that Florence was the birthplace of the Renaissance as a result of luck, i.e., because "Great Men" were born there by chance: Leonardo da Vinci, Botticelli and Michelangelo were all born in Tuscany. Arguing that such chance seems improbable, other historians have contended that these "Great Men" were only able to rise to prominence because of the prevailing cultural conditions at the time.
The Medici were a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. There were four popes who were related to the Medici.
Pope Leo X (December 11, 1475 – December 1, 1521), born Giovanni de' Medici, was pope from 1513 to his death.
Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was pope from 1523 to 1534. He was a first cousin of Leo X.
Pope Pius IV (31 March 1499 – December 9, 1565), born Giovanni Angelo Medici, was pope from 1559 to 1565. However, he was only distantly related to the other Medici popes.
Pope Leo XI (June 2, 1535 – April 27, 1605), born Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, was pope from April 1, 1605, to April 27 of the same year.
Florence Renaissance story
59 BC Established by Julius Ceasar
1450-1527 AD Florence is center of Renaissance
1500's Home of the Medici
Their works, together with those of many other generations of artists, are gathered in the several museums of the town: the Uffizi Gallery, the Palatina gallery with the paintings of the "Golden Ages", the Bargello with the sculptures of the Renaissance, the museum of San Marco with Fra Angelico's works, the Academy, the chapels of the Medicis Buonarroti's house with the sculptures of Michelangelo, the following museums: Bardini, Horne, Stibbert, Romano, Corsini, The Gallery of Modern Art, the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, the museum of Silverware and the museum of Precious Stones. Several monuments are located in Florence: the Florence Baptistery with its mosaics; the cathedral with its sculptures, the medieval churches with bands of frescoes; public as well as private palaces: Palazzo Vecchio, Palazzo Pitti, Palazzo Medici Riccardi, Palazzo Davanzati; monasteries, cloisters, refectories; the "Certosa". In the archaeological museum includes documents of Etruscan civilisation. In fact the city is so rich in art that some first time visitors experience the Stendhal syndrome as they encounter its art for the first time.
Romantic 4 villages on the Tuscany coast. Cinque Terre is mentioned in documents dating to the 11th century. Monterosso and Vernazza were settled first and the other villages grew later, whilst within the territory of the Republic of Genoa. In the 16th century, the inhabitants reinforced existing forts and built new defence towers to defend the area from attacks by the Turks.
PISA Leaning tower.
Construction of the tower occurred in three stages over 199 years. On 5 January 1172, On 9 August 1173, the foundations of the tower were laid. Work on the ground floor of the white marble campanile began on 14 August of the same year during a period of military success and prosperity. This ground floor is a blind arcade articulated by engaged columns with classical Corinthian capitals.
The tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the second floor in 1178. This was due to a mere three-metre foundation, set in weak, unstable subsoil, a design that was flawed from the beginning. Construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, as the Republic of Pisa was almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca, and Florence. This allowed time for the underlying soil to settle. Otherwise, the tower would almost certainly have toppled. On 27 December 1233, the worker Benenato, son of Gerardo Bottici, oversaw the continuation of the tower's construction.
On 23 February 1260, Guido Speziale, son of Giovanni Pisano, was elected to oversee the building of the tower. On 12 April 1264, the master builder Giovanni di Simone, architect of the Camposanto, and 23 workers went to the mountains close to Pisa to cut marble. The cut stones were given to Rainaldo Speziale, worker of St. Francesco. In 1272, construction resumed under Di Simone. In an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built upper floors with one side taller than the other. Because of this, the tower is curved. Construction was halted again in 1284 when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoese in the Battle of Meloria. The seventh floor was completed in 1319. The bell-chamber was finally added in 1372. It was built by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the belfry with the Romanesque style of the tower. There are seven bells, one for each note of the musical major scale. The largest one was installed in 1655.
Classic walled structure.
Nile ages to Petra - Wadi Rum - Venice - Florence
Start with Sphinx dominating scene and then track showing the pyramids behind.
Use a window start with side view and then reveal what is through window. Walls, lintles and pillars all act as blocks.
Walk into room using door as block and panorama around.
Start low horizontal hold and move to max reach- about 3 meters.
Look for a tower view point track up over edge and out and then rotate down to overhead view.
Track down to low view of vegetation or water fall.
Transition between 2 views - , to avoid people use camera overhead. Start with view1 side track, pan or joystick to view2, zoom and front track towards new target. Best Activetrack pointing and side track best using slow follow, Best handle pan & tilt use fast follow. Use blocks for transitions, pillars, walls, traffic etc.
A drawing of a couple with hyroglyphics. Track hyroglyphics "If Nefertete sees this text message I will be a dead Pharoe." "She is out milking her mothers camel, lets meet under the obelix" "we need a more secure text message system" "Your just thinking about one thing" "Oh Biggertete I do love your mind as well".A drawing of a couple with hyroglyphics.
Abu Simbel, Boat track, Walk in
A sphinx in Philae is worth a picture
LUXOR AND KARNAK On east side of Nile river. Views from River at dusk, arrays of corridors of pillars and statues - Hyper tracks front and side.
Boat trip down the canals
Ponte Rialto and Market
Saint Marks Basilica,
Doges Palace -Sala dello Scudo Maps and Special exhibits,
Corridors in palace
Bridge of Sighs
Night row on Canal
Set the scene with the Arno river
Duomo dome - interior
Michaelangelo painting -Duomo Museo dell Opera -
Quarters of Leo X, Carta Graphia (Map room) - Palazza Vecchio -
Donatello David - Museo Nazionale del Bargello
MIchaelangelo David - Gallerai d'Accadameia - -
Leonardo Uffizi museum
Raphael Uffizi museum
Riomaggiore - sunset Boat trip
Train/walk between villages