Oregon Itinerary 2024
Fly To Portland stay around Mt Hood
To Klamath Falls
Grebes in Klamath Falls.
Crater Lake at dawn
To Yachats via Eugene
Cape Perpetua, Thors Well at high tide
Meet Bob Ward
To Portland via Nestucca Bay
Portland with the Portunes
Columbia river gorge
Morning View of Mount St Helens from learning center -
To Portland stay around MT Hood
Klamath Falls 4.5 hrs Grebes
Grebes in Klamath Falls.
Crater Lake dawn light
Bradley Lake ?
Cape Perpetua 4.5 hrs via Eugene
Thors Well etc. at high tide Cape Perpetua
To Portland via Nestucca Bay 3 hrs
Portland - 3 nights
Columbia river gorge long view
Morning View of MSH from learning center - consider back view if plowed out.
Volcanic activity in the region has been traced to 40 million years ago. In the the last ice age, two million to 700,000 years ago, the Columbia River broke through Cascade Range, forming the Columbia River Gorge.
The Columbia River and its drainage basin experienced some of the world's greatest known floods toward the end of the last ice age. The periodic rupturing of ice dams at Glacial Lake Missoula resulted in discharge rates ten times the combined flow of all the rivers of the world, as many as forty times over a thousand-year period. Water levels during the Missoula Floods have been estimated at 1,250 feet (380 m) at the Wallula Gap (in present-day Washington), 830 feet (250 m) at Bonneville Dam, and 400 feet (120 m) over current day Portland, Oregon. The floods' periodic inundation of the lower Columbia River Plateau deposited rich lake sediments, establishing the fertility that supports extensive agriculture in the modern era. They also formed many unusual geological features, such as the channeled scablands of eastern Washington.
Mount Mazama, once the tallest mountain in the region at 11,000 feet, had a massive volcanic eruption approximately 5677 B.C. Mazama's collapsed caldera, in today's southern Oregon, contains Crater Lake, and the entire mountain is located in Crater Lake National Park.
In 1980, Mount St. Helens in nearby Washington erupted violently, temporarily reducing the Columbia River's depth to as little as 13 feet, and disrupting Portland's economy. The eruption deposited ash as far into Oregon as Bend.
Along the Cape Perpetua coastline, there are several unique features as well. The Devils Churn is a long crack in the coastal rock that fills with each ocean wave, occasionally exploding as incoming and outgoing waves collide. The Spouting Horn at Cook's Chasm and Thor's Well on the plateau nearby are both salt water fountains driven by the power of the ocean tide. Both Thor's Well and Spouting Horn are best seen approximately an hour before high tide to an hour after high tide.
Fur traders and trappers, initially from the Hudson's Bay Company, explored the land more thoroughly, documenting encounters with most of the local Indian tribes. Christian missionaries, and later immigrants planning to settle permanently in Oregon, sent glowing reports back to their families in the east.
The Spanish exploration team led by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sighted southern Oregon off the Pacific coast in 1543. In 1592, Juan de Fuca undertook detailed mapping and studies of ocean currents. Stops along these trips included Oregon as well as the strait now bearing his name. Exploration was retaken routinely in 1774, starting by the expedition of frigate Santiago by Juan José Pérez Hernández. Soon the coast of Oregon became a valuable trading route to Asia.
Juan Pérez explored the coast of the Pacific Northwest north to British Columbia in 1774. He was the first European to see Yaquina Head on the Oregon Coast. In 1775 another Spanish expedition, under Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra and Bruno de Heceta, explored the coast. While returning south Heceta found the mouth of the Columbia River, but was unable to enter.
British explorer James Cook explored the Oregon Coast in 1778 in search of the Northwest Passage. Beginning in the late 1780s many ships from Britain, America, and other countries sailed to the Pacific Northwest to engage in the region's emerging Maritime Fur Trade business. American sea captain Robert Gray entered Tillamook Bay in 1788 and later explored the mouth of the Columbia in 1792. Gray was soon followed by a ship under the command of George Vancouver, a British captain, who also explored Puget Sound and claimed it for Britain.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition traveled through the region during their expedition to explore the Louisiana Purchase. They built their winter fort at Fort Clatsop, near the mouth of the Columbia. Exploration by Lewis and Clark (1805–1806) and the United Kingdom's David Thompson, who extensively explored the Columbia River from 1807 to 1811, publicized the abundance of fur-bearing animals in the area.
The Astor Expedition of 1810–1812, financed by American businessman John Jacob Astor built Fort Astoria the first permanent white settlement in the region. Although the fort would remain under American control for only a short time, it would become a component of the United States' later claim on the region.
A party returning east discovered the South Pass through the Rocky Mountains, which would become an important feature of the Oregon Trail. The Hudson's Bay Company expanded the system and during the 1820s and 1830s dominated the Pacific Northwest from its Columbia District headquarters at Fort Vancouver (built in 1825 by the District's Chief Factor John McLoughlin across the Columbia from present-day Portland).
The Oregon Trail brought many new settlers to the region, starting in 1842–1843, after the United States agreed to jointly settle the Oregon Country with the United Kingdom. The border was defined peacefully in 1846 by the Oregon Treaty. The border between the United States and British North America was set at the 49th parallel. The Oregon Territory was officially organized in 1848.
Numerous efforts to find easier overland passage to the Willamette Valley were undertaken beginning in the 1840s. . The Barlow Road would become the final leg of the Oregon Trail after its construction in 1846. Settlement increased because of the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850, in conjunction with the forced relocation of the native population to Indian reservations. The state was admitted to the Union on February 14, 1859.