Scenery is created by the deposition of rocks, the uplift of rocks, and the erosion of rocks. It is then modified by the vegetation that the land supports. Scenery can be broadly classified by the underlying geology
Leaving bare rock unless overgrown by
Redeposited sand as beaches and silt
Today's scenery is the latest snap shot of the accumulation of multiple cycles of uplift and removal, dominated by the partial erosion of the last uplift. The erosion is mostly caused by liquid water creating "V shaped" valleys often following fault lines, and cliffs at the ocean. Glacier ice erodes creating "U- shaped" valleys. Secondary sources of erosion are wind, meteor impact, volcanic explosion. Where there is water, vegetation overgrows the rock.
Plate tectonics is the engine of change in our scenery. Volcanic activity leads to magma forming real time land growth mostly along plate boundaries such as the Cascades on the "Ring of Fire" and at stationary hot spots such as Hawaii and Galapagos.
Sandstone is created from erosion debris settling out of the water. Uplift of sandstone from plate motion creates dry land that is then subject to water erosion to create places such as Zion, Grand Canyon and the Canadian Rockies.
Motion at plate boundaries also drive sandstone down towards the molten core. High pressure and temperature, and injections of magma causes chemical changes in sandstone to create metamorphic rock. Subsequent uplift from plate motion exposes the rock to erosion. The youngest mountains such as the Sierras were uplifted 6-5My ago. The Himalayas and Rockies were uplifted 60My-40My ago. The Appalachians were uplifted 300My ago during the creation of Pangea.
The oldest rocks that are visible today are 4500My ago in western Australia, because Australia is in relative tectonic isolation.
Uplift associated with tectonic plate boundaries creates the starting point for erosion.
Volcanism produces the most recent structures along the fault lines of the tectonic plates;
Galapagos, Hawaii and Iceland are all "hot spot" locations were you can observe the expulsion of liquid magma.
Cascade volcanoes are less than 2My old, and the highest peaks are less than 100Ky old. Beyond the eastern foothills is an arid plateau that was largely created 17My to 14My ago.
La Veta, the Spanish Peaks and all the other features, with few exceptions, were intruded as much as 10 km below the paleo surface that existed some 20-30 million years ago. The processes of uplift, weathering and erosion since then have revealed what we see today. All the features you see are referred to as “erosional remnants” because most of them are more resistant to weathering than the softer sedimentary rock they intruded.
Sandstones and limestones are deposited in layers out of shallow seas. Away from the plate boundaries, the sandstone layers remain pristine. These are then uplifted and eroded to produce classic stair step valley walls.
Zion was deposited 260 M (Kaibab) - 100 M years ago. The upper half of Zion Canyon was carved between about 1 and 2 million years ago with the Narrows formed more recently. There is a deep layer of white Navajo Sandstone.
Escalente Staircase - White Pocket was 200-195My ago when White Navajo Sandstone was soaked in water and then subject to compression.
Monument Valley was deposited in 300My - 270My ago. The floor is largely siltstone deposited as silt by the meandering rivers that carved the valley over the last 2My. The mesa wall vivid red color comes from iron oxide exposed in the weathered "De Chelly" sandstone deposited 280My ago. The darker, blue-gray rocks in the valley get their color from manganese oxide.
Grand Canyon was deposited from 1.6B-270My ago have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut their channels through layer after layer of rock while the Colorado Plateau was uplifted from 5 to 6 million years ago.
Canadian Rockies were deposited 500My ago, and uplifted 80 and 55My ago from plate pressure analogous to pushing a rug on a hardwood floor the rug bunches up and forms wrinkles of unmodified sandstone with fossils.
Metamorphic rocks started as sandstones. Near plate boundaries, sandstones are driven down and magma injected in at high pressure creating new crystals structures. These rocks are typically much harder and resistant to erosion. As a result Metamorphic rocks form some of the steepest and most majestic mountains. Plutonic describes metamorphic rock that includes igneous rock formed by solidification of magma at considerable depth beneath the earth's surface. The granite igneous inclusions of Yosemite in the metamorphic Sierra Nevada are an example. Metamorphic tectonite is a rock in which the fabric elements reflect the history of deformation, for example slate or slab.
Sierra Nevada deposited 252My to 66My ago, uplifted less than 5My ago, not long after the Sierra uplift began, ice ages started carving U-shaped valleys. The sheer walls and hanging valleys of Yosemite National Park are a product of this chilly past.
Rocky Mountains were deposited 500My ago, the latest uplift between 80 and 55My ago. In the south, an unusual low angle subduction produced the growth of the metamorphic Rocky Mountains in the United States, much farther inland than the normal 300 to 500 km. Around 55My ago, the Rockies were like Tibet: a high plateau, probably 6,000 metres (20,000 ft) above sea level. Subsequent erosion stripped away the high rocks, revealing the ancestral rocks beneath, and forming the current landscape of the Rockies.
Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago, uplifted 270My ago when Africa (Gondwana) plowed into Pangea to form mountains that stretched all the way from East US to Norway in Pangea. They once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before experiencing natural erosion. It was not until the region was uplifted around 50My ago that the distinctive topography of the present was exposed. Uplift rejuvenated the streams, which cleared deposits back to the 270My old structures.
Australia was deposited as 4500-2500My rocks mostly in the west, 2500 to 538My rocks in the center, and 538y to present rocks in the east. Down drive and uplift occurred due to plate movements in Nuna, Rodinia and Pangea. Recent geologic events are confined to intraplate earthquakes, as the continent of Australia sits distant from the plate boundary.
The flow of liquid water is probably makes the single biggest natural impact on our scenery. It flows downhill though any weakness in the rock forming anything from slot canyons to wide V-shaped valleys. In colder climes, ice flows much more slowly but is hard and abrasive. Glaciers from the ice ages 400Ky - 20Ky ago covered roughly half the globe creating U shaped valleys. Today's glaciers are receding due to global warning. On the coast, ocean waves are another aggressive source of erosion.
Meteor erosion to form craters
Meteor crater The object that excavated the crater was a nickel-iron meteorite about 50m (compared to 10km for the KT meteor) across created about 50,000 years ago when the local climate on the Colorado Plateau was much cooler and damper. The area was an open grassland dotted with woodlands inhabited by mammoths and giant ground sloths
Chicxulub crater formed 66My ago by a 10km wide meteor was responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs.
Volcanic explosion to form caldera
Caldera from volcanic explosion - Mt St Helens, Santorini, Yellowstone
Mount St Helens is a explosion that occurred in 1982.
Santorini island was the site of the Minoan eruption (sometimes called the Thera eruption), which occurred about 3,600 years ago. The eruption left a large caldera surrounded by volcanic ash deposits hundreds of metres deep.
The Yellowstone Caldera, formed during the last of three supereruptions over the past 2.1M - 600K years, measures 70 by 45 km.
Coned mountains - Mt Ranier WA, also Mt Fuji etc.
The youngest mountains are volcanic which are located at tectonic plate boundaries and hot spots.
Fissures - La Veta CO, also on the Big Island HI
Weaknesses in the sides of volcanoes leads to cracks filled with lava that forms fissures.
Geyser - Old Faithful at Yellowstone NP in WY
Stable openings to the hot lava allow water to be boiled off as geysers.
Eroded Lava - Cape Verde Islands, Kawaii Island HI
The lava is soft and easily eroded by rain.
Fresh lava - Galapagos, Big Island HI, and Iceland
No vegetation at all.
Layered mountains - Canadian Rockies
Layered sedimentary rocks that are uplifted away from tectonic plate boundaries, and are relatively unusual. Because of their height, these ranges are deserts and mostly show glacial erosion.
Eroded Valley - Zion UT, Petra in Jordan, also Grand Canyon AZ.
Sedimentary rocks eroded along fault lines by water from nearby mountains which produces some of the most spectacular eroded structures such as walled valleys and slot canyons. The absence of local rain in the desert minimizes subsequent erosion of the structures.
Eroded Mesas - Monument Valley & White Pocket
Erosion of weaker sedimentary rocks on top of a fault- free harder layer produces mesas (Monument Valley). When the sandstone is under water when pressured, it folds into complex shapes (White Pocket in Esclante NP).
Forested Mesa - Karst Islands in Thailand
Rounded forested sedimentary rock structures are seen in regions with local rainfall. "Karst" Limestone mesas also show stalactites on the outside surface.
Desert - Wadi Rum in Jordan
Sharp edged mesas become wind blown and rounded in locations susceptible to sand storms.
Jagged mountain - Grand Tetons WY, Torres del Paine in Chile, also the Himalayas, Alps.
At the tectonic plate boundaries, sedimentary rocks can be exposed to extreme heat and pressure which transforms the chemical make up to form much harder "metamorphic" materials. In subsequent plate activity, uplift creates mountains that are resistant to erosion. The most common base for earths mountains. Fossil free.
Coniferous forested foothills - Yosimite
At higher latitude/altitude, coniferous forest blankets the rocks. The seeds and co-residents form a home for large omnivores such as bears.
Old metamorphic, deciduous forested - Appalachian Mts VT.
Lower mountains are often older eroded metamorphic rocks. At lower altitude they are blanketed by deciduous forest.
Prarie supporting herbivores - Yellowstone WY
Low rain regions support Prairie grasslands. Home of herds of herbivores such as buffalo and moose, and their wolf and bear predators.
Sand dunes - Sand Dunes NP CO
Erosion products collect in sand dunes.
Forested mountains - Vinunga NP Rwanda File Photo
Near the equator, even mountains are blanketed by thick tropical rain forest.
Montane cloud rainforest -Rwanda, Costa Rica
Tropical rain forest is full of seeds and fruits. Home of large omnivores such as gorillas and chimpanzees..
Lowland Tropical Forest - Ecuador Amazon.
At lower altitudes, smaller primates thrive such as howler monkeys. Spectacular tropical birds also thrive.
Savannah - Botswana
Less water produces Savannah grasslands that support a wide variety of herbivores from Elephants to Wildebeest, Giraffes, and Deer.
Sand dunes - Namibia File Photo
At the Western coast there are no rain making mountains, and sand dunes dominate.
Mountain glaciers - Rockies ice field, Fjords.
At high altitudes, the hard ice in glaciers scour the rocks creating U shaped valleys. Where the glacier melts, the eroded material fills the river with silt and rubble. During last ice age, glaciers created valleys that are now fjords.
Lakes - Sierra Mts
A staple of mountain scenery,
Waterfall - Yellowstone Falls WY, Victoria Falls in Zimbabwe.
As the water flows down hill often following faults in the rock, waterfalls form some of the most memorable landscapes.
Rivers - Colorado River TX, Nile in Egypt.
At lower altitudes, slow moving rivers support local vegetation and prolific bird life.
Alluvial Plane - Okavambo Delta in Botswana, Missippi Delta.
When the river finally runs out, any eroded material is dropped creating meandering streams in a delta, and supports huge variety of birds. Okavambo is a inland delta.
Polar Ice shelves
At the poles, ice forms at the oceans edge, and covers ocean and any low lying land. In the north, polar bears live on seal. In the south, penguins live on the local fish.
Cold water upwell - Alaska
Close to the polar ice caps, the upwelling of nutrients supports millions of tons of Krill that in turn feeds everything from Baleen Whales to fish galore, and their predators. In the shallows, seaweed provides an ideal food and protected environment for crustaceans and predators such as sea otters.
Cliffs - CA
The eroded cliff edges of the land produce beach sand that decorates the coasts around the world. Seabirds thrive on coastal cliffs.
Temperate Beaches - CA
Many marine mammals also rely on beaches to rear their young. Predators patrol beaches from the air and water to feast on the young.
Tropical Beaches - Galapagos
Beaches form a critical role as a nursery for many egg laying species such as turtles.
Coral in warm shallows - Great Barrier Reef
Coral is symbiotic with bacteria that acts as food at the bottom of the pyramid. Coral is anchored to the shallow sea floor, so they act as a fixed point of concentrated food. This results in their role as a location of exceptional diversity.
A habitat is a combination of local geology, and fauna that provides food that allows certain species to thrive.
The local geology can be classified by rock type and the subsequent process that it was exposed to. The rock types as noted above are; sandstone, metamorphic, volcanic, and erosion products. The key modifying processes are: Faulted, Eroded, and Recent Uplift.
The flora that thrives in any geology depends on the temperature and the availability of water. Trees need water, the species have different ability to survive freezing temperatures.
In the tropical lowlands with no western mountains to make rain, deserts are dominant , with vegetation close to rivers (Egypt, American southwest). As soon as there is water, tropical rain forests appear (Amazon, Borneo). At high altitude, desert reappears such as Mt Kilimanjaro.
In the mid latitudes the great temperate plains support grasslands - and large scale farming; as in the Americas great plains (Yellowstone), African savannah (Botswana) and Asia Steppes. Increased water at altitude supports deciduous forest (Europe).
Closer to the north pole, more hardy coniferous forest dominates (CA) which die out at lower altitude as you move north (Rockies).
The fauna depends on the food type. Trees produce seeds in the form of seeds, fruits and nuts, a high calorie food for large omnivores such as primates and bears.
Grasslands are low calorie food for large herds of herbivores such as deer, buffalo, wildebeest.
Industrial farming has created mono-culture deserts shrinking the available habitat. In regions that have been left undisturbed, you can still see the natural world in action. Islands are isolated and evolve their own unique fauna.
The ocean has a simpler range of habitats; deep or shallow, hot or cold.
The basic plant life in the shallows that uses photosynthesis are; phytoplankton, algae, bacteria, and seaweed. There is also basic life in deep water trenches at the tectonic plate growth boundaries.
The primary consumers in the ocean are; coral, sea urchins, manatees, mussels, sea turtles, parrot fish, and zooplankton that include fish larvae, jelly fish, krill, segmented worms, and copepods.
Coral is anchored to the shallow sea floor, which acts a fixed point of concentrated food. This results in role as a location of exceptional diversity.
Upwelling currents bring cold nutrient-rich waters from the ocean bottom to the surface, supporting many of the most important fisheries and ecosystems in the world. These currents support the growth of phytoplankton and seaweed which provide the energy base for consumers higher in the food chain. Krill is another major food source that thrives in cold water, and their larvae uses the ice pack for protection. The Antarctic krill, makes up an estimated biomass of around 379 M tonnes, making it among the species with the largest total biomass. Over half of this biomass is eaten by baleen whales (blue & humpback whales), seals, penguins, seabirds, squid, and fish each year. Whale migrations are timed to feed on the krill swarms.
Secondary consumers are; clownfish, herring, sardine, and lobster.
Tertiary consumers are; large fish like tuna, seals, turtles, dolphins, and moray eels.
Apex predators include Great White Shark, Sperm Whale, and Killer Whale.